Showing posts with label security. Show all posts
Showing posts with label security. Show all posts

Tuesday, October 18, 2022

On suspicion of ties to Russian intelligence, Germany dismisses the head of cybersecurity

    Tuesday, October 18, 2022   No comments

 The German Interior Ministry has dismissed the head of the Federal Office for Information Technology Security (BSI), Arne Schönbaum, over reports of possible ties to Russian intelligence.

A spokesman for the German Interior Ministry stated that Interior Minister Nancy Wieser decided to prevent Schönbaum from carrying out his official duties as head of the "BSI" office with immediate effect, noting that the background to the decision is in particular the accusations announced by the media and widely discussed.

He added that these accusations "permanently damaged the necessary confidence on the part of public opinion in the impartiality and integrity of the office's leadership as head of the most important German cybersecurity service," noting that this matter applies more in light of the current crisis situation due to the Russian-Ukrainian war.

The spokesperson stated that the accusations raised affected the necessary trust relationship on the part of the Minister with the leadership of the office.

Schönbaum has been in a critical situation since the media revealed his relationship with a cybersecurity advisory association suspected of having had contact with Russian intelligence services.

Schönbaum, 53, co-founded and managed the "Cyber ​​Security Council-Germany" advisory a decade ago, which includes experts from public institutions and the private sector, and German media said that among its members was "a company founded by a former Russian intelligence agent."

The Home Office said the study of these allegations was continuing, and added that "pending the conclusion of this study, the presumption of innocence naturally applies to the person of Mr. Schönbaum."

The German government announced more than a week ago that it was thoroughly investigating the media reports.

The dismissal comes at a time when Germany has been placed on alert against possible acts of sabotage by Moscow after the leakage in the Nord Stream 1 and 2 pipelines to transport Russian gas to Europe, and this country was subjected to widespread sabotage of railways on the eighth of October, where it occurred Some expressed the hypothesis that Russia was behind the operation in the context of the war on Ukraine.


Sunday, September 18, 2022

Samarkand Declaration of the Council of Heads of State of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (Full text)

    Sunday, September 18, 2022   No comments
1. The leaders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States (hereinafter referred to as "the SCO" or "the Organization"), as a result of the meeting of the Council of Heads of State in the city of Samarkand on 16 September 2022, declare the following.

2. Today, the world is undergoing global changes, entering a new era of rapid development and large-scale transformation. These fundamental processes are accompanied by stronger multipolarity, increased interconnectedness, accelerated pace of informatization and digitalization. Against this background, the current system of international challenges and threats is becoming more complex, the situation in the world is dangerously degrading, existing local conflicts and crises are intensifying and new ones are emerging.

3. The growing technological and digital divide, continued turbulence in global financial markets, global reduction in investment flows, instability in supply chains, increased protectionist measures and other barriers to international trade add to the volatility and uncertainty in the global economy.

4. The impacts of global climate change and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic pose additional challenges to economic growth, social well-being and food security, as well as to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To this end, new approaches are required to promote more equitable and effective international cooperation and sustainable economic development.

5. The member states, based on the proximity or convergence of assessments of the current regional and international agenda, reaffirm their commitment to a more representative, democratic, just and multipolar world order based on the universally recognized principles of international law, multilateralism, equal, common, indivisible, comprehensive and sustainable security, multicultural and civilizational diversity, mutual benefit and equal cooperation among states with a central coordinating role for the UN.

6. The SCO Member States, in accordance with the principles of the SCO Charter, adhere to a line ruling out bloc, ideologized and confrontational approaches to addressing international and regional development problems and countering traditional and non-traditional challenges and threats to security. Taking into account the views of Member States, they confirm the relevance of initiatives to promote cooperation in building a new type of international relations in the spirit of mutual respect, justice, equality and mutual benefit, as well as forming a common vision of creating a community of shared destiny for humanity.

7. The Member States advocate respect for the right of peoples to independently and democratically choose their political and socio-economic development, and stress that the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity of States, equality, mutual benefit, non- interference in internal affairs, and non-use or threat of use of force are the basis for sustainable development of international relations. They reaffirm their commitment to peaceful settlement of differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation.

8. The member states reaffirm the non-targeting of SCO against other states and international organizations and openness to extensive cooperation with them in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, the SCO Charter and international law based on the consideration of mutual interests and common approaches to solving regional and global problems.

9. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization today has firmly established itself as an authoritative and influential multilateral association whose activities are aimed at ensuring peace, security and stability, jointly confronting new challenges and threats in the SCO region, and strengthening trade, economic, cultural and humanitarian relations among SCO countries.

10. The member States emphasize the historic significance of the SCO Charter adopted 20 years ago, which laid the foundation for close, fruitful and multifaceted cooperation among the SCO member States based on the "Shanghai spirit" of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, mutual consultation, respect for cultural diversity and the desire for joint development. They believe that consistent implementation of these principles contributes to a new model of regional cooperation that makes a constructive contribution to strengthening mutually beneficial multilateral relations in Eurasia.

11. The Member States intend to further develop cooperation in the fields of politics and security, trade, economy, finance and investment, cultural and humanitarian relations with the aim of building a peaceful, secure, prosperous and environmentally friendly planet Earth, achieving a harmonious coexistence of man and nature.

12. Underlining the significance of the 15th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty on Long-term Neighbourliness, Friendship and Cooperation of the SCO Member States, the leaders of the SCO member States approved the Comprehensive Plan for its implementation for 2023-2027. The Member States will further increase the SCO's participation in efforts to ensure peace and security, advocating the settlement of international and regional conflicts by exclusively peaceful political and diplomatic means in order to strengthen relations between the Member States so that the friendship of their peoples is passed on from generation to generation.

13. The Member States consider Central Asia to be the core of SCO and support the efforts of the countries of the region to ensure prosperity and peace, sustainable development and the formation of a space of good-neighbourliness, trust and friendship. They advocate further strengthening the role of SCO in enhancing stability and socio-economic development in the region, welcome the holding of regular consultative meetings of the heads of State of Central Asia and, in this regard, note the success of the regular summit on 21 July 2022 (Cholpon-Ata, the Kyrgyz Republic).

14. The Member States believe that the ongoing efforts to enhance connectivity between Central Asia and South Asia contribute to the common goal of ensuring prosperity and security in the vast SCO region by building sustainable trade, economic, transport and communication links and strengthening the dialogue among civilizations.

15. The Member States expressed deep concern over the security threat posed by terrorism, separatism and extremism in all its forms and manifestations and strongly condemned terrorist acts around the world. They stressed the importance of consistent implementation of the 2022-2024 Programme of Cooperation of the SCO Member States in countering terrorism, separatism and extremism (Dushanbe, 17 September 2021).

16. Member States, while reaffirming a strong commitment to fight terrorism, separatism and extremism, resolve to continue to take active measures to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, cut off terrorist financing channels, suppress terrorist recruitment and cross-border movement, counter extremism, radicalization of youth, spread of terrorist ideology, and eliminate sleeper cells and places used as terrorist safe havens.

17. Member States note the inadmissibility of interference in the internal affairs of States under the pretext of countering terrorism and extremism, as well as the inadmissibility of the use of terrorist, extremist and radical groups for selfish ends.

18. The member States consider it important to step up joint efforts of the international community to counter attempts to draw young people into the activities of terrorist, separatist and extremist groups, paying particular attention to preventing the spread of religious intolerance, aggressive nationalism, ethnic and racial discrimination, xenophobia and ideas of fascism and chauvinism.

19. The Member States note the effective work of the SCO Regional Anti- Terrorist Structure in promoting cooperation among competent authorities in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism. The parties stress the importance of implementing practical measures aimed at strengthening its capacities for practical cooperation in these areas.

20. The Member States, in accordance with their national legislation and on the basis of consensus, will seek to develop common principles and approaches to form a unified list of terrorist, separatist and extremist organizations whose activities are prohibited on the territories of the SCO member states.

21. The Member States noted the results of the joint anti-terrorism exercises of the competent authorities of the SCO member states "Pabbi - Anti-Terror - 2021" and the joint border operation of the border services of the competent authorities of the SCO member states "Solidarity - 2019-2021", as well as the effective presidency of the Republic of India in the SCO RATS Council (2021-2022).

22. The Member States consider it necessary to implement the decision of the SCO CHS on improvement of mechanisms to counter challenges and threats to security of the SCO Member States taking into account the relevant initiatives on establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Anti-Drug Centre in Dushanbe as a separate permanent body (Republic of Tajikistan); on establishment of the Universal Centre to Counter Challenges and Threats to Security of the SCO member-states based on the SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent city.

23. The SCO Member States will continue to cooperate in the field of international information security on the basis of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states of 16 June 2009 (Ekaterinburg) and the corresponding Cooperation Plan for 2022-2023.

24. Member States will develop cooperation among relevant authorities in Member States to promote digital literacy in order to bridge the digital divide.

25. Member States emphasize the key role of the UN in countering threats in the information space, creating a safe, fair and open information space built on the principles of respect for state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

26. They consider it important to ensure the equal rights of all countries to regulate the Internet and the sovereign right of States to manage it in their national segment.

27. Member States are categorically against the militarization of the ICT sphere, considering it necessary to ensure the use of modern technologies for peaceful purposes, to create a safe, fair and open information space built on the principles of respect for state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

The Member States reiterate the key role of the United Nations in countering threats in the information space. They support the development of universal rules, principles and norms of responsible behavior of states in this area, including welcoming the launch of a comprehensive international convention on combating the use of ICTs for criminal purposes under the auspices of the UN. Member States will continue to cooperate in the relevant negotiation mechanisms at the UN and other international fora.

28. Member States call upon the international community to strengthen global cooperation in countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, with the UN playing a central role through full implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions and the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in accordance with the UN Charter and the principles of international law, without politicization or double standards, respecting the sovereignty and independence of all states, and to seek consensus on the adoption of a Comprehensive Convention on Combating International Terrorism.

29. Member States noted the outcomes of the international conference on the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Joint Plan of Action to implement the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Central Asia (Tashkent, 3-4 March 2022).

30. The Member States noted the efforts of the Republic of Tajikistan in promoting multilateral cooperation in combating terrorism and its financing in the Central Asian region ("Dushanbe process") and holding the next high-level conference on "International and Regional Security and Cooperation in Border Management to Combat Terrorism and Prevent Movement of Terrorists" together with UN in Dushanbe on 18-19 October 2022.

31. Member States noted the nomination of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (2025-2026), the Kyrgyz Republic (2027-2028), the Republic of India (2028-2029), the Republic of Tajikistan (2028-2029), the Republic of Kazakhstan (2039-2040) as non-permanent members of the UN Security Council, as well as the nomination of the Kyrgyz Republic (2023-2025) and the People's Republic of China (2024-2026) for membership of the UN Security Council.) and the People's Republic of China (2024-2026) for membership of the UN Human Rights Council, the candidacy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the post of President of the UN General Assembly for 2031-2032, and the candidacy of the Republic of Tajikistan for membership of the UN Economic and Social Council for 2024-2026.

32. The Member States, having noted the outcome of the Meeting of Secretaries of Security Councils of the SCO Member States (Tashkent, 18-19 August 2022), confirmed their readiness to further expand cooperation in countering threats to stability and security in the SCO region.

33. The Member States noted the outcome of the Meeting of the SCO Defence Ministers (Tashkent, 24-25 August 2022) and advocated further enhancement of defence and security cooperation. They also stressed the importance of holding regular joint military counter-terrorism command and staff exercises "Peace Mission" to enhance the level of cooperation in combating armed formations of international terrorist organizations and improve counter-terrorism methods.

34. Member States expressed their concern about the increasing threats posed by the increased production, trafficking and abuse of narcotic drugs, using the proceeds of drug trafficking as a source of financing of terrorism. They stressed the need for a joint and balanced approach in countering drug trafficking and their precursors and noted the importance of implementing the international drug control conventions and other relevant legal instruments.

35. The Member States note that illicit drug trafficking and its non-medical use are a threat to international and regional security and stability, sustainable economic development of States, the health and welfare of peoples, as well as the exercise of fundamental human rights and freedoms. They stress the importance of consolidating forces to combat illicit drug trafficking and advocate the further active development of practical cooperation in this area.

36. Member States intend to continue to work together to oppose attempts to legalize the non-medical use of drugs, based on the inadmissibility of the legalization of drugs, which is regarded as a flagrant violation of the three relevant international conventions.

37. The member states will continue to conduct regular joint operations to suppress illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, to take effective measures to prevent the spread of synthetic drugs, new psychoactive substances based on the SCO Anti-Drug Strategy for 2018-2023 and its Action Programme for its implementation. They noted the outcome of the Meeting of Heads of Competent Authorities of Member States Entrusted with Combating Illicit Drug Trafficking (Tashkent, 20 April 2022).

38. The Member States stand for active interaction with other interested states, regional, international organizations in this field. They noted the outcome of the joint SCO/UNODC high-level event (15 March 2022) during the 65th session of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and stressed the importance of continuing the SCO's involvement in implementing the Paris Pact initiative.

39. The Member States consider the sustained implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the Iranian nuclear programme important and, in accordance with UNSCR 2231, call upon all participants to rigorously implement their commitments for the full and effective implementation of the document.

40. The Member States that are parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons advocate strict compliance with the provisions of the Treaty, the comprehensive and balanced advancement of all its objectives and principles, the strengthening of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime, the pursuit of nuclear disarmament, and the promotion of equal mutually beneficial cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

41. Member States again draw attention to the negative impact of unilateral and unrestricted build-ups of global missile defence systems by individual countries or groups of States on international security and stability. They consider unacceptable attempts to ensure their own security at the expense of the security of other States.

42. Member States advocate multilateral political and diplomatic responses to global and regional challenges and threats to security, and will enhance cooperation and actively promote the multilateral arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation process, including efforts in the Conference on Disarmament.

43. The Member States are in favour of maintaining outer space free of weapons of all kinds and agree that it is important to ensure strict compliance with the existing legal regime regarding the use of outer space for exclusively peaceful purposes. They emphasize the need to conclude an international, legally binding instrument that would strengthen transparency and provide credible assurances against an arms - race and non-deployment of weapons in outer space.

44. Member States emphasize the importance of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BWC) as a pillar of the global security architecture. They stress the need for strict compliance with the BWC, including through the adoption of a Protocol to the Convention establishing an effective verification mechanism. They oppose the establishment of any mechanisms duplicating the functions of the BWC, including as regards the competence of the UN Security Council.

45. The Member States call for full compliance with the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) as an effective disarmament and non- proliferation instrument. They stress the importance of the speedy destruction of all declared chemical weapons stockpiles. The Member States reaffirm their support for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and call for agreed decisions to overcome the divisions within the Organisation and to ensure its integrity and effective operation in accordance with the Convention.

46. The Member States believe that the early entry of the Protocol on Security Assurances to the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia into force will make a significant contribution to regional security and the strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation regime for all signatory States.

47. The Member States proceed from the premise that there is no alternative to political and diplomatic solutions to conflict situations in various regions of the world on the basis of strict compliance with generally recognized norms and principles of international law.

The SCO Member States believe that one of the most important factors in preserving and strengthening security and stability in the SCO region is the speedy settlement of the situation in Afghanistan. They support the establishment of Afghanistan as an independent, neutral, united, democratic and peaceful State, free of terrorism, war and drugs.

Member States believe that it is critical to have an inclusive Government in Afghanistan, with representatives from all ethnic, religious and political groups of Afghan society.

The Member States, underlining the value of the long-standing hospitality and effective assistance extended by regional and neighbouring countries to Afghan refugees, consider the active engagement of the international community in facilitating their dignified, safe and sustainable return to their homeland to be essential.

Member States, in view of the evolving humanitarian situation in Afghanistan, supported continued efforts to assist the Afghan people.

48. The Member States noted the results of the XV Meeting of the SCO Forum (Russia, 26 May 2022) and stressed the importance of further development of the SCO Forum as a public consultative mechanism and a platform for expert dialogue on urgent issues of SCO business development.

49. Member States reaffirm their intention to develop practical cooperation in the field of law and justice, forensic science through the development of coordinated approaches to the exchange of experience, methodology of forensic examinations, advanced training of forensic experts.

50. They advocate the development of cooperation in the field of standard- setting, legal assistance, legal education of the population, as well as the continuation of efforts to create an online platform for the exchange of legal information, taking into account the provisions of national legislation.

51. Member States, in accordance with their national legislation, will enhance cooperation through their attorneys general's offices, ensuring law enforcement cooperation aimed at protecting human rights and countering contemporary challenges and threats of transnational crime, including the criminal use of ICTs, corruption, trafficking in drugs and their precursors, smuggling, terrorism, extremism, illegal migration, trafficking in persons, acts that infringe on the rights and freedoms of minors.

52. The Member States note that fruitful cooperation through the presidents of supreme courts is a reliable platform for improving joint activities in protecting human rights and freedoms, strengthening justice, the rule of law and the rule of law. This mechanism serves to harmonise approaches in the work of courts of SCO member states, improve the efficiency of inter-judicial cooperation and create conditions for deepening judicial reforms.

53. They will enhance cooperation in the forensic field, including information exchange and joint activities.

54. The member states attach importance to cooperation between supreme courts in the field of justice as an effective factor in strengthening mutual trust and friendship, development of good neighbourliness within the SCO.

55. The member states are convinced that corruption in all its manifestations is a threat to national and regional security, leads to a decrease in the efficiency of public administration, negatively affects the international prestige and investment attractiveness of states, and hinders their progressive socio-economic development. They are in favour of further strengthening international cooperation in the field of anti-corruption activities, increasing the authority of the UN and its role in the global anti-corruption fight and support the relevant UN Convention.

56. Member States have supported the establishment of legislative linkages and the sharing of experiences in governance and development.

57. Member States will continue the practice of sending SCO missions to observe presidential, parliamentary elections and referendums.

58. The Member States confirm SCO's openness for accession by interested states whose goals and aspirations meet the criteria and conditions contained in the normative legal documents of the Organization. They took note of the importance of the decision adopted on 17 September 2021 at the Dushanbe Summit to start the procedure for the admission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the SCO membership, in practical implementation of which the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding with a view to acquire the status of an SCO Member State took place on 16 September 2022 in Samarkand.

The Member States stressed the importance of the decision to start the procedure of accepting the Republic of Belarus as a member of the SCO.

59. The Member States note with satisfaction the adoption of decisions granting the Kingdom of Bahrain, the Maldives, the State of Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and the Republic of the Union of Myanmar the status of SCO dialogue partner. They noted the signing of memoranda on granting the status of SCO dialogue partner with the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of Qatar.

60. The Member States welcomed the signing of memoranda of understanding by the SCO Secretariat with the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States, UNESCO and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

61. The Member States stressed that the expansion of the SCO and further deepening of cooperation with the SCO Observer States, Dialogue Partners and international associations will expand the potential of the Organisation and further enhance its role in the international arena as a multilateral mechanism for addressing topical contemporary issues, ensuring security, stability and sustainable development in the region.

62. Member States will continue to seek common ground on foreign policy issues of common interest, including in international organizations and international forums.

63. The Member States reaffirm the importance of continuing to improve the architecture of global economic governance and will consistently uphold and strengthen an open, transparent, equitable, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the principles and rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), promote an open global economy, oppose protectionist measures and trade restrictions that are inconsistent with WTO principles, undermine the multilateral trading system They stressed that unilateral application of economic sanctions other than those adopted by the UNSC is inconsistent with the principles of international law and adversely affects third countries and international economic relations.

Member States call for strengthening the effectiveness of WTO as the key forum for discussing the international trade agenda and adopting the rules of the multilateral trading system. They emphasize the need for early and inclusive reform of the organization, focusing on its development and adaptation to modern economic realities, as well as effective implementation of monitoring, negotiation and dispute settlement functions.

64. Member States are in favour of encouraging regional economic cooperation in various forms, promoting an enabling environment for trade and investment with a view to achieving progressive free movement of goods, capital, services and technology.

65. The Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan, while reaffirming support for China's One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative, acknowledge the ongoing work to jointly implement the project, including efforts to link the construction of the Eurasian Economic Union and OBOR.

66. The Member States consider it important to utilize the potential of the countries of the region, international organizations and multilateral associations in order to create a space in Eurasia for broad, open, mutually beneficial and equal interaction in accordance with international law and taking into account national interests. In that regard, they noted the idea of establishing a Greater Eurasian Partnership involving the SCO countries, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and other interested States and multilateral associations.

67. The Member States noted the importance of further deepening cooperation between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in ensuring security and stability in the region as well as on other issues of mutual interest. In this regard, they expressed support for institutional development of CICA.

68. The member states stressed the need for consistent implementation of the SCO Multilateral Trade and Economic Cooperation Programme and its Action Plan. They stressed that the SCO has developed significant economic and investment potential which contributes to the improvement of trade and economic cooperation. Expansion and deepening of interaction in financial, investment, industrial, transport, energy, agricultural and other fields, including through development and implementation of joint programs and projects, is in the interest of sustainable social and economic development in the SCO region.

Member States decided to establish an Special Working Group on Start-ups and Innovation, Special Working Group on Poverty Reduction and an Expert Working Group on Traditional Medicine.

69. Taking into account the importance of examining and comprehensively analyzing the factors affecting economic cooperation within the SCO, taking into account global and regional processes, and elaborating expert recommendations and proposals for the development of the SCO economic sector, the member states note the importance of continuing the practice of holding meetings of the SCO Consortium of Economic Think Tanks and the SCO Economic Forum.

70. The Member States advocate further deepening people-oriented interaction on improving the well-being and living standards of the population in the SCO region. They noted the results of the first meeting of the heads of SCO ministries and agencies on poverty reduction (Tashkent, 28 January 2022) and the International Conference on Poverty Reduction (Bukhara, 26-27 May 2022).

71. The Member States stressed the impact of COVID-19 on the dynamics of economic growth processes in the SCO region. In this regard, they consider it important to continue coordinating efforts to overcome the negative socio-economic consequences of the pandemic, including further implementation of the SCO member states' Joint Recommendatory Action Plan 2021-2023 (Dushanbe, September 17, 2021).

72. The Member States, noting the importance of e-commerce for the development of economic cooperation to increase employment and prosperity, instructed the Council of Heads of Government of SCO member states to take measures to improve the efficiency of cooperation in this area within the framework of the Meeting of Ministers responsible for foreign economic and foreign trade activities and the relevant Special Working Group.

73. The Member States advocate strengthening the potential of technoparks, joining efforts to develop the innovation ecosystem, conducting joint research and development, launching new digital projects in the SCO region, paying special attention to the implementation of the Concept on the creation of the SCO Member States Technoparks Pool of 2021.

74. The Member States noted that the creative economy could become one of the components of developing the SCO's innovative potential. They believe that support for creative industries will contribute to enhancing the competitiveness of SCO economies.

75. The Member States will continue to strengthen inter-regional cooperation by implementing the Inter-regional Cooperation Development Program, holding and further expanding the format of the SCO Heads of Regions Forum, including through the use by interested states of the SCO China Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Demonstration Zone in Qingdao.

In order to strengthen cooperation and develop the services sector and trade in services within the SCO, to enhance regional and global competitiveness, interested Member States approved the Framework for Cooperation in Trade in Services and the Joint Action Plan to Develop Intra-regional Trade in the SCO Region.

76. The Member States will further develop the potential of the SCO Business Council and SCO Interbank Association, promote joint initiatives of business communities to intensify cooperation in order to implement projects in the field of finance, high technology, transport and communications infrastructure, energy, investment, small and medium businesses in the SCO region.

77. The Member States stressed the need to provide financial support for project activities in order to unlock the full investment potential of the Organization and, in this regard, to continue consultations on the establishment of the SCO Development Bank and the SCO Development Fund (Special Account).

They noted the adoption by the interested SCO member states of the Road Map on Increasing the Share of National Currencies in Mutual Settlements and called for expansion of this practice.

78. The Member States will continue to cooperate in digital economy and support the development of digital technologies. They noted the results of the first meeting of the heads of ministries and agencies of the SCO Member States responsible for the development of information technologies (Tashkent, November 25, 2021) and the adoption of an Action Plan to implement the Concept of cooperation of the SCO member states in the field of digitalization and information and communication technologies.

79. In order to promote economic growth in the SCO Member states by creating an efficient and competitive transport and technological infrastructure, the Programme for Infrastructure Development of the SCO Member States was adopted.

Member States underline the importance of further deepening cooperation in transport sector, including the creation of new and modernization of existing international routes for road and rail transport, multimodal transport corridors and logistics centres, trade and tourism, introduction of digital, innovative and energy- saving technologies, optimization of cross-border procedures in accordance with international best practices and implementation of other joint infrastructure projects that ensure efficient.

80. The heads of delegations noted the outcome of the ninth meeting of SCO transport ministers (12 May 2022, Khiva). In order to develop transit potential in the SCO region, the heads of state approved the Concept of cooperation of the SCO Member States to develop interconnectivity and create efficient transport corridors.

Approaches to accelerate economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, further deepen regional economic cooperation and unlock international production and supply chains are captured in the Statement on Resilient, Reliable and Diversified Supply Chains adopted in the format of interested Member States.

81. They note the importance of consistent implementation of the Agreement between the Governments of the SCO Member States on Facilitation of International Road Transport (Dushanbe, 12 September 2014) and regular meetings of the Joint Commission on Facilitation of International Road Transport.

82. Member States will continue to develop cooperation between railway administrations based on the SCO Member States Railway Administration (Railway) Cooperation Concept of 2 November 2019.

83. Member States advocate the further development of modern logistics centres and joint action to coordinate and facilitate the interconnection of railway infrastructure, docking policies and regulations, scientific and technological innovation and capacity-building, exploring concrete measures to increase international intermodal container trains and further promote safe, stable and quality railway transport development.

84. The Member States noted the proposal of the Republic of Uzbekistan to establish in Central Asia under the aegis of the UN the Regional Center for Development of Transport and Communication Connectivity, as well as the proposal of the Republic of Kazakhstan to establish the UN Center on Sustainable Development Goals for Central Asia and Afghanistan.

85. The Member States stressed the need for further development of industrial cooperation and industrial cooperation within the SCO. They noted the outcome of the Second Meeting of the SCO Ministers of Industry (Tashkent, July 15, 2022), as well as the signing of the Program to promote industrial cooperation among the business communities of the SCO member states and the opening of the Uzbekistan-SCO Industrial Zone.

86. The Member States noted the outcome of the Meeting of the Energy Ministers of the SCO Member States (24 June 2022, Tashkent). They will continue to deepen cooperation between the SCO countries in the field of energy through practical implementation of the Concept of Energy Cooperation of the SCO Member States (12 August 2021, Dushanbe).

Member States stress the need to increase mutually beneficial cooperation in the energy sector, including efficient use of all types of energy resources, and support the application of various efficient economically and environmentally friendly technologies that reduce negative environmental impact and promote energy security and the transition to cleaner and greener energy sources in an energy efficient economy. They note the importance of jointly exploring ways to expand regional electricity interconnectivity in the SCO member states.

87. To this end, the Member States welcomed the adoption of the Programme of Cooperation of the SCO Member States in the Use of Renewable Energy Sources.

88. Member States stressed the commitment to build a sustainable economic system, including through the promotion of green and environmentally friendly technologies, as well as inclusive approaches to social development through the implementation of the SCO Green Belt Program (17 September 2021, Dushanbe).

89. Member States note the importance of cooperation in the fields of environmental protection, environmental security, mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change, biodiversity conservation and use, and the exchange of experience and operational information on these matters. They recognize that lack of access to safe drinking water, basic sanitation and healthy hygiene are major challenges of our time and note the need to focus on sustainable development and water management.

Member States are convinced that the climate agenda should not be used to introduce measures restricting trade and investment cooperation. Efforts will be made to establish an active dialogue with relevant international institutions in order to attract investment and finance joint projects and programs in the field of environmental protection and introduction of new environmentally friendly technologies, increasing the share of "green" economy.

90. Member States, taking into account a number of challenges facing the development of agriculture within the production cycle, advocate the introduction of modern technologies, active cooperation in the field of food security, prevention and control of transboundary epizootic diseases. In this connection they will continue practical implementation of the Joint Statement of the SCO Heads of State Council on Food Security (17 September 2021, Dushanbe) and note the approval of the Concept of cooperation of the SCO member states in the field of smart agriculture and agro-innovations and signing of the Agreement between the authorized bodies of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of plant quarantine.

The interested Member States note the expediency of using the site of the SCO Demonstration Base in Yanglin (PRC) for exchange and training in modern agricultural technologies.

91. Member States will continue to strengthen cooperation in the cultural, scientific, technical, educational, humanitarian and tourism spheres in order to further promote dialogue among civilizations and good-neighbourly and friendly relations in the SCO region. They will promote the enhancement of cultural diversity, cooperate in research and protection of the region's cultural and natural heritage.

92. Member States noted the outcome of the Seventh Meeting of the Heads of Sanitary and Epidemiological Services of the SCO Member States (9 December 2021, St. Petersburg). They consider it necessary to ensure the implementation of the SCO Comprehensive Plan of Joint Action to Address Epidemic Threats in the Region (10 November 2020).

93. Member States, while speaking out against the stigma attached to a new coronavirus infection, stressed the need to further strengthen international cooperation in combating its spread as well as in dealing with the global political and socio-economic consequences of the pandemic.

94. The SCO Member States note the need for joint efforts to build cooperation in the digitalization of health and consider the potential of telemedicine as part of the national strategies of the SCO member States to maintain and improve the health of their citizens. In this regard, they noted the adoption of the Concept of Cooperation of SCO Member States in the field of telemedicine.

95. Member States will continue to coordinate responses to public health emergencies of international importance, deepen scientific and technical cooperation in the development of drugs, vaccines and test systems, including on the basis of the Roadmap for cooperation between medical organisations of SCO member states in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

96. Member States noted the initiative of the Russian Federation to hold regular exercises by interested SCO Member States to identify and respond to sanitary and epidemiological emergencies, including through the use of mobile laboratories.

97. Member States support the leading role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in global health governance, including in protecting public health from threats of infectious disease epidemics in accordance with the WHO International Health Regulations (2005).

98. The SCO Member States, stressing the importance of further implementation of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in disaster management assistance (signed on October 26 2005 in Moscow), confirmed their willingness to step up joint efforts in this field. They will continue to strengthen interaction in such areas as exchange of operational information, training of personnel, holding of joint disaster and accident management exercises as well as promote cooperation in the field of disaster management in the border regions. The Member States will develop cooperation with the UN, other international and regional organizations in these areas.

99. The Member States note the importance of further strengthening cooperation in education within the SCO, expanding inter-university cooperation, holding forums of rectors, scientific conferences and symposia, and developing the activities of the SCO University. Seeking to expand cooperation in the field of digital learning in view of the trends of the world economy in the era of digital globalization, the member states noted the adoption of the SCO Digital Literacy Programme.

100. The Member States note the importance of further development of scientific and technological cooperation in the SCO space, express their willingness to conduct joint scientific research, exchange of experience between scientists and scientific organizations within the SCO to find new sources of economic growth and solutions to overcome common social challenges. In this connection they stress the need to implement in practice the Statement of the Council of SCO Heads of State on strengthening cooperation in the field of science, technology and innovation (September 17, 2021, Dushanbe).

101. The Member States advocate enhancing cooperation on youth on the basis of implementation of the provisions of the 2018 SCO Heads of State's Joint Address to Youth and Programme of Action for its implementation, and the 2021 Agreement between the competent authorities of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of youth work. They positively assessed the results of the meeting of the SCO Youth Council (Tashkent, 10 June 2022). They noted the importance of holding intellectual games-contests "Model SCO" for schoolchildren and students, holding start-up forums and competitions on innovations and start-ups among youth, conclaves of young scientists of volunteer movement development, as well as implementation of the "International SCO Youth Business Incubator" project under the SCO Youth Council.

102. Member States, noting the importance of actively supporting women's participation in political, economic, public, social and other spheres of activity, welcomed the SCO Women's Forum and SCO Women Entrepreneurs' Conference to be held in Samarkand on 17-18 August 2022.

103. In order to further strengthen mutual understanding and friendship the Member States consider it important to effectively implement the intergovernmental Agreement on Cooperation in Culture dated August 16, 2007 (Bishkek), including in the field of literature, including translation of classical works, cinematography, music, theatre and fine arts, museum work, exhibitions and other creative activities. In this context they noted the outcome of the Meeting of the SCO Ministers of Culture (May 19, 2022, Tashkent), the signature of the Memorandum between the authorised agencies of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of museums and the initiative to create the Alliance of Museums of the SCO Member States.

104. Stressing the importance of further development of cooperation in the field of tourism, the SCO member states noted the results of the Meeting of the Heads of Tourism Administrations of the SCO Member States (19 May 2022, Tashkent), the signing of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in tourism, and also the holding of the Exhibition "Eight Wonders of the SCO" and the SCO Tourism Forum (19-20 May 2022, Tashkent).

105. In order to further promote the rich cultural and historical heritage of the peoples and tourism potential of the SCO member states, it was decided to declare the city of Varanasi (Republic of India) as the SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for 2022-2023.

106. Member States stressed that the celebration of the SCO Year of Culture in 2021 was an example of respectful treatment of national traditions and mutual enrichment of cultures in the territory of the Organisation.

In order to support the tourism industry and enhance the tourism attractiveness of the SCO cities and regions, the member states agreed to declare 2023 the SCO Tourism Year.

107. The Member States highly appreciate the contribution of public diplomacy institutions and cultural centres in the SCO Member States in building mutual trust, strengthening mutual understanding and expanding cultural and humanitarian ties within the Organisation. They noted the outcome of the SCO Public Diplomacy Forum (May 11, 2022, Tashkent), and also the work of the SCO Committee on Good Neighbourhood, Friendship and Cooperation, the SCO Cultural Integration Centre in Bishkek, the SCO Friendship and Cooperation Centre in Dushanbe and the SCO Public Diplomacy Centre in Tashkent.

108. The Member States consider it necessary to develop contacts in the media, press services of the authorities and digital space, including through the implementation of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in the media sphere (14 June 2019, Bishkek).

109. The Member States, noting the importance of promoting the goals, objectives, principles and key activities of the SCO among the general public in the region and around the world, approved the Statute on the honorary title of SCO Goodwill Ambassador.

110. The Member States, recognizing the role of sport as an important tool for peace, social inclusion and sustainable development, confirm their willingness to enhance cooperation in this field based on the principles of Olympism.

111. The Member States welcome the first Meeting of heads of relevant ministries and agencies responsible for the development of physical culture and sports of the SCO member states to be held on 20 May 2022 in Tashkent. They expect that the Meeting will become a platform for the coordination of cooperation of the SCO member states in the sphere of physical culture and sports, as well as the formation of promising areas of cooperation in this sphere.

112. The SCO member states noted the holding of SCO Kunming and Issyk- Kul Marathons (on 12 December 2021 and 14 May 2022), Dushanbe Half Marathon (13 June 2021) and Tashkent Half Marathon (27 March 2022) and expressed their support for holding such events on a regular basis, stressing their contribution to deepening friendship and mutual understanding between the peoples of SCO member states, and also to positioning the organisation on the international scene.

113. In view of the importance of preserving the ecological balance in the SCO region and restoring biodiversity, ensuring favourable conditions for the well- being of people and sustainable development, the SCO member states emphasise the need to implement in practice the Action Plan to Implement the 2022-2024 Concept of Cooperation among the SCO Member States in the Field of Environmental Protection.

114. The Member States, supporting the proposal of the Republic of Tajikistan to declare 2025 as the International Year for the Preservation of Glaciers, note the initiative to establish an International Fund for the Protection of Glaciers through the adoption of a UN General Assembly Resolution.

115. The SCO member states noted the adoption, at the initiative of the Kyrgyz Republic, of the resolution of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly "Nature knows no borders: transboundary cooperation as a key factor for the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity" and of the 41st session of the UNESCO General Conference "Enhanced monitoring and research on mountain glaciers".

At the initiative of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Member States noted the adoption of the Resolution of the 76th session of the UN General Assembly on strengthening the interconnectedness of Central and South Asia.

116. Member States noted initiatives to adopt UN General Assembly resolutions declaring an "International Day for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education" and a "Decade of Action for Mountain Development" in 2023-2027 (Kyrgyz Republic) as well as an "International Year of Mobilizing Volunteers for Development" (Republic of Kazakhstan).

Member States noted the outcome of the 2nd High Level International Conference on the International Decade for Action, Water for Sustainable Development, 2018-2028 (Dushanbe, 6-9 June 2022).

117. Member States underlined the importance of further development of interaction with UN, with interested states and structures in solving the problem of Aral Sea associated with the drying of its basin on large-scale. They noted the adoption of the UN General Assembly resolution on declaring the Aral Sea region as a zone of ecological technologies and innovations (18 May 2021) as well as its initiative on launching the Multi-partner Trust Fund for Human Security in the Aral Sea region taking into account the parties' positions.

118. As a responsible and influential player in international efforts to ensure peace and stable development of Eurasia, SCO will continue to take coordinated steps to counter the growing threats and challenges in the region.

119. The member States, reaffirming their commitment to peace, joint development and equal relations based on the principles of mutual respect, friendship and good-neighbourliness, will continue to conduct a constructive and trusting dialogue, deepen effective multifaceted cooperation and make every effort to strengthen security and stability and ensure sustainable development in the SCO region.

120. The Member States commend the outcomes of the Republic of Uzbekistan's presidency of the SCO in 2021-2022, which have contributed to the further development of multifaceted mutually beneficial cooperation. They welcome the "Samarkand Solidarity Initiative for Common Security and Prosperity" put forward by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, aimed at ensuring peace and stability, wider international cooperation and promoting sustainable human development.

121. The presidency of the SCO for the forthcoming period passes to the Republic of India. The next meeting of the SCO Council of Heads of State will be held in 2023 in the Republic of India.


September 16, 2022


(DISCLAIMER - This is the approximate translation of Samarkand Declaration. Original Declaration is in Russian language)

Thursday, September 15, 2022

Reuters agency: The head of the Turkish intelligence service held several meetings with his Syrian counterpart in Damascus during the past few weeks

    Thursday, September 15, 2022   No comments

Regional sources "close to Damascus" told the agency that the head of the Turkish intelligence service, Hakan Fidan, and the head of the Syrian National Security Service, Ali Mamlouk, met this week in the Syrian capital.

During the meetings, Fidan and Mamlouk assessed the possibility of the two countries' foreign ministers meeting, according to a senior Turkish official and a Turkish security source.

"Russia wants Syria and Turkey to overcome their problems and reach certain agreements that are in the interest of everyone, Turkey and Syria alike," the Turkish official said.

One of the big challenges, the official added, is Turkey's desire to include the Syrian opposition in any talks with Damascus.

The Turkish security official noted that Russia has gradually withdrawn some military resources from Syria to focus on Ukraine, and asked Turkey to normalize relations with Damascus to "accelerate the political solution" in Syria.

He pointed out that "Ankara does not want to see Iranian or Iranian-backed forces fill the gaps left by the Russian withdrawals."

The source close to Damascus said that Russia had urged Syria to enter into talks, adding that recent meetings, including Fidan's two-day visit to Damascus last August, sought to pave the way for higher-level sessions.

He added that the Turkish-Syrian contacts had made a lot of progress, without going into details.

A third regional source allied with Damascus said that "Turkish-Syrian relations have begun to improve and progress to the stage of creating an atmosphere of understanding."

What is the Shanghai Organization and what are its goals?

    Thursday, September 15, 2022   No comments

Two major events are happening this week: a summit meeting bringing the leaders of the nation-states that are members (or possibly future members) of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO); and the signing of the final document making Iran full member of this intergovernmental organization (IGO). Iran will add about 90 million people to this bloc of countries, bringing the percentage of the world population represented in this IGO to more than half the world's population.

The activities of the Shanghai Cooperation Summit began in the Uzbek city of Samarkand, with the participation of leaders of member states, led by Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin.

On Thursday, the Chinese and Russian presidents will meet bilaterally at a regional summit, which looks like a front against the West, at the height of severe tension exacerbated by the war in Ukraine.

In Samarkand - a key stop on the ancient Silk Road - Xi and Putin will be joined by leaders of India, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran and other countries for the two-day Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit, which is the first in-person summit of the SCO leaders since 2019.

Russia’s leader, Putin, has played a major role in this organization; the reasons are explained in this in-depth analysis.

This review note explains both events, starting with an overview of the organization.

What is the Shanghai Cooperation Organization?

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a Eurasian international organization, founded in the form of a political, economic and military alliance, in the Chinese city of Shanghai, on June 15, 2001, by 6 countries initially, namely: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. These countries, with the exception of Uzbekistan, were members of the "Shanghai Five-Year Group" established on April 26, 1996 in Shanghai.


Subsequently, India and Pakistan joined the organization as full members, on June 9, 2017, at the Astana Summit. During the organization's summit held in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, on September 17, 2021, the members agreed to change Iran's status in the organization from an observer member to a full member.


The organization also includes non-member observer countries, including: Belarus, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Nepal, Cambodia, Armenia and Sri Lanka. It comes after the member states of the "dialogue partnership", including Turkey, which became a member since 2012, and recently Egypt and Qatar joined as well. There are many countries interested in establishing relations with the organization, such as: Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, UAE, Iraq and Syria, All of them seek to join the "dialogue partnership".


The vast area that includes the member states of the Shanghai Organization extends from north to south; From the Arctic to the Indian Ocean, from east to west; From Lianyungang in China to Kaliningrad in the Russian Federation, in addition to Iran, the 5 countries with nuclear capabilities will be united into one regional organization.


Members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization make up nearly half of the world's population and nearly 5/3 of the Eurasian land mass, making it the world's largest regional political alliance. The Shanghai Organization in the West is often called the "Eastern Alliance".


Shanghai and enhance mutual trust policies

During the Saint Petersburg Summit in 2002, the organization signed its charter, which explains its objectives, principles, structures and modes of action, for recognition in international law. In September 2003, the charter of the organization entered into force.


According to the charter of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, summits of the Council of Heads of State are held annually in designated places, alternately, in alphabetical order of the name of the member state in Russian. The Charter also stipulates that the members of the Council of Heads of Government (ie, Prime Ministers) meet annually at a place decided by the members of the Council.


The objectives of the organization revolve around promoting policies of mutual trust and good-neighbourliness among member states, combating terrorism and strengthening security, combating crime and drug trafficking, and confronting separatist movements and religious or ethnic extremism.


Shanghai .. and regional security

Since its establishment in 2001, the organization has mainly focused its efforts on issues of regional security and combating terrorism, national separatist movements and religious extremism. Regional development has also become among its priorities.


The organization intends to further develop its permanent body, the Regional Anti-Terrorism Structure (RATS). Between 2011 and 2015, under the coordination of the Regional Counter-Terrorism Structure, the authorities in the member states of the organization were able to prevent 20 terrorist attacks from taking place. It was still in the planning stages, avoiding 650 crimes of a terrorist and extremist nature, removing 440 terrorist training camps and neutralizing 1,700 member organizations of the international terrorist, according to the Secretary-General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Rashid Alimov.


The organization arrested more than 2,700 members of proscribed armed groups and their associates, and persons suspected of criminal activities, while 213 persons linked to terrorist or extremist organizations were handed over, with many of them sentenced to long prison terms. 180 suspects were placed on wanted lists, 600 secret bases equipped with weapons were discovered, and more than 3,250 indiscriminate explosive devices were confiscated, in addition to 10,000 weapons, about 450,000 pieces of ammunition, and more than 52 tons of explosives, according to Alimov.


The organization has enjoyed observer status in the United Nations General Assembly since 2005. In April 2010, the secretariats of the United Nations and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization signed a joint declaration on cooperation.


The Organization's General Secretariat has also established partnerships with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Tourism Organization and the International Organization for Migration, in addition to its ongoing cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and the United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism .


In the context of special anti-drug operations conducted within the territories of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization over many years, the organization seized about 69 tons of lethal heroin from traffickers, and this figure constitutes about 14% of the drugs seized worldwide.


The UN Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, as well as the UN Center for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia, maintain regular contacts with Shanghai Cooperation Organization officials.


Military and counter-terrorism activities

The peoples of this organization constitute about half of humanity, which makes it a huge fundamental entity that cannot be underestimated politically, economically or militarily in the global system, and over the past few years the activities of the organization have expanded to include increasing military cooperation, exchanging intelligence information and combating terrorism.


The organization says that it "conducts military exercises regularly among members to enhance cooperation and coordination against terrorism and other external threats, and to maintain regional peace and stability."


There have been a number of SCO joint military exercises. The first was held in 2003, with the first phase taking place in Kazakhstan and the second in China. Since then, China and Russia have cooperated in large-scale war games in 2005, 2007 and 2009, sponsored by the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.


More than 4,000 soldiers participated in the 2007 joint military exercise, known as the "Peace Mission", which took place in Chelyabinsk, Russia, near the Ural Mountains. After the successful completion of these war games, Russian officials started talking about India joining such exercises in the future.


The organization conducted maneuvers under the name "Peace Mission 2021", with the participation of Russia, China, India, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan, in addition to Belarus, which participated for the first time in these maneuvers aimed at "fighting terrorism", which lasted for 4 days.


Some Western observers described the organization as the "NATO of the East", and classified it as an emerging military bloc to be wary of, and as the largest anti-American bloc in the region.


Regional Economic Development

The organization sought to help develop regional economies, create favorable conditions for trade and support investment initiatives from Eastern Europe to the Russian east coast and China, as well as build an integrated road transport system.


The size of the economies of the member states of the organization, in the year 2020, amounted to about 18.4 trillion dollars, while the intra-OIC trade jumped to 6.2 trillion dollars during the same period.


Since the establishment of the organization nearly 21 years ago, China has proposed a long-term goal of establishing a free trade area among member states, in addition to taking other immediate measures to improve the flow of goods in the region.


The organization established its own Business Council, on June 14, 2006, with the aim of expanding economic cooperation among member states, establishing direct relationships between financial communities, and facilitating the practical promotion of multilateral economic projects.


In the same year, the organization also established what is known as the “Confederation of Interbank Banks” (SCO IBC) with the aim of providing financing and banking services for investment projects sponsored by the governments of the member states of the organization, as the SCO IBC meets in particular based on the consensus of all parties once At least every year.


Priority areas of cooperation within the SCO include: providing financing for projects focused on infrastructure, basic industries, high-tech industries, export-oriented sectors and social enterprises, issuing and providing loans based on generally accepted international banking practices, and organizing pre-export financing to stimulate trade and economic cooperation between Shanghai Cooperation Organization member states, and other areas of common interest.


The countries of this organization are seeking to integrate among themselves at the economic level, in order to break the US-imposed embargo, especially Iran, Russia and China, to attract Asian investments and supply energy products.


The Shanghai Organization, in all its countries, has great potential on the geopolitical level, in the field of oil, gas, electric power, and many others. Any new country obtaining membership in the organization will lead to the economic integration that the organization aims to, and this matter will certainly strengthen the position of the East vis-à-vis the Western countries that adopt a unipolar policy.


Iran is a full member of the "Shanghai Organization" .. Timing and economic importance

Meeting with Iran’s president, Putin reminded the Iranian leader of Russia’s role in the process and stated that now Russia will take its relations with Iran to the next level:

“Russia has done everything for Iran to become a full-fledged member  of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Russian delegation with representatives of 80 large Russian companies will travel to Iran next week.”

Iran's acceptance as a full member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization at this time is not without connotations, as it coincides with changes inside and outside Iran. Changes appear in its favor, especially in terms of getting it out of the US economic embargo, which officially began with its signing of the strategic partnership agreement with China.

In another expansionary step with great significance at various levels, the organization announced at its meeting today, through the words of Chinese President Xi Jinping, its agreement to grant Iran full membership in it, after it had been an observer member in it for years. The Chinese president said, “Iran will be considered a full member.” in the Shanghai Organization at today's meeting."

Significance of membership timing

The granting of Iran full membership in the Shanghai Organization at this time seems remarkable, as it was followed by:


1- The China-Iran strategic agreement, which was signed in Tehran on March 27, after a regional tour by Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi that included the Gulf states and Turkey.


The "Strategic Partnership Document", as it was called, is a 25-year agreement between the two countries, covering the political, economic, military and industrial fields.


This agreement serves both countries, as it guarantees the global economic giant a further growth in its role and consolidation of its presence on the international scene, especially in the countries that the United States has placed on the list of “forbidden areas” imposed by its harsh economic sanctions.


It also guarantees Iran an open outlet through which it is liberated from these sanctions, disposes of its oil production that America does not buy, and prevents other countries from buying it by imposing sanctions on them, in an attempt to put economic pressure on Iran to change its political positions, and Iran imports In return for its exported oil, it needs industrial equipment, machinery and expertise, and it is preparing its ports and infrastructure with Chinese assistance, allowing the latter to use these facilities to export its products through land and sea towards the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, then to the European continents in the north and Africa in the south.


2- The complete and urgent US military withdrawal from Afghanistan, the country that has been occupied by the United States and its NATO allies for 20 years, located within the borders of the Eurasian region, and implanted between the two major countries in the world, China and Russia, as the United States sought to prevent their convergence and impede their growth economy, especially China, by cutting off its land and sea exports to the West, and threatening its security by igniting wars and security disturbances.


Here, it is worth noting that it is not a coincidence or a detail that the organization was formed only about 4 months before the anniversary of the American invasion of Afghanistan, and against the drums of this war that the United States and Britain had waged after the September 11 attacks that toppled the World Trade Center in New York. It also targeted the US Department of Defense (Pentagon).


The American role obstructing the work of the Shanghai Organization and the growth of China’s economic standing was demonstrated by the hastening of the leaders of the “Taliban” movement, which quickly and gradually seized all the Afghan regions in conjunction with the departure of the occupying forces, to visit China and meet officials in its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and their emphasis on the pivotal Chinese role in Reconstruct the country exhausted by occupation and conflicts, and reassure them that they will not use Afghan lands to target the security of other countries.


3- The election of a new president of Iran last June, the head of the judiciary and the strongman, Ibrahim Raisi, by a large margin of votes over his closest remaining rival, after the withdrawal of the most famous names nominated in his favor, as former chief nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili.


Since the beginning of his term, Raisi has sought to enhance his country's presence and position in the world, by strengthening its relations at the regional level, and benefiting from all its capabilities, foremost of which is its geographical location. He reached Eurasia through a corridor linking the north with the south.


Before heading to Tajikistan, Raisi said that his country's participation in the summit "will focus on our economic and cultural relations with Asian countries," and stressed that "cooperation with neighboring countries and the region is a top priority for Iran's foreign policy."


Last August, Raisi declared that strengthening Iran's relations with Russia and China, the two main members of the organization, was a priority of his foreign policy.


Opening economic fields to Iran and liberating it from the American blockade

Among the three previous points, the strategic agreement between Iran and China, which represents the most prominent pillar of the organization, is the most important thing that contributed to Iran's accession to it, so that it appears that what happened is nothing but an expansion of the official international recognition of Iran's regional role and presence, and a greater contribution to its removal. Under the American economic blockade, and in opening the fields to it by both China and Russia, whose President Vladimir Putin stated during his speech at the summit, that his country “supports the decision submitted for approval by the Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization regarding the start of procedures for Iran’s admission to the organization , stressing the mutual importance of its accession by saying that this would "increase the international authority of the organization."


In the first Iranian comment, the spokesman for the Presidency of the Iranian Parliament, Nizamuddin Mousavi, considered, in an interview with ISNA, that what we are witnessing is "the establishment of a new world order where the Quartet of Power in the East (Russia, China, India, Iran) is considered one of the most important international players in this new world order," he added, adding that "Iran's accession to this organization, despite Washington's opposition, proves that the era of unilateral policies is over and we are witnessing the establishment of a new world order."


In economic terms, Mousavi said that his country's accession "means reaching a market of 3 billion people, and this is a great opportunity that we must have a roadmap to exploit in the best way."


This accession was preceded by the nuclear negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 countries, rounds of which were conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna in the last months of the term of former President Hassan Rouhani, with talk of preparing for other rounds after the formation of the first Iranian government under President Ibrahim Raisi. Without neglecting the positive visit of the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Rafael Grossi, to Tehran, and his meeting with the head of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Mohammad Eslami.


All of the foregoing contributes to comforting Iran with the beginning of the era of President Ibrahim Raisi, and makes it approach an international position that it seeks to reach despite the obstacles of its enemies to this, which will also put it in front of major challenges in order to hold on to these gains and take advantage of the new opportunities available.



This weekly events review included research notes and analysis from Reda Zeidan.


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