Showing posts with label China. Show all posts
Showing posts with label China. Show all posts

Monday, January 09, 2023

Muslim scholars and officials from 14 Muslims majority countries visited China to take a closer look at the situation in Xinjiang region

    Monday, January 09, 2023   No comments

Muslim scholars and officials from 14 Muslims majority countries visited China to take a closer look at the situation in Xinjiang region, where a sizeable Muslim population reside. The event was covered by the organization of the leader of the delegation and Chinese media. 

Here is what English language Chinese media reported:

Visiting the exhibition on the fight against terrorism and extremism, talking with religion groups, and interacting with local residents at the bazaar… a group of Islamic figures and scholars are paying a visit to Northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to get a clear and better understanding of the region in contrast to the US-led smear campaign.

 Led by Ali Rashid Abudula Ali Alnuaimi, chairman of the World Muslim Communities Council, the delegation consists of more than 30 Islamic figures and scholars from 14 countries, including the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Bahrain, Tunisia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, who began their Xinjiang visit on Sunday. 

Ma Xingrui, Party chief of the Xinjiang region, welcomed the delegation - the first foreign delegation to the region in 2023 - at a meeting in Urumqi on Monday, acknowledging their support for China's stance on Xinjiang-related issues, as the US and some Western countries continuously spread rumors, throwing mud at China and attempting to sow discord between China and Islamic countries. 

However, righteous people in the Islamic world have never bent to the pressure from some Western countries, nor have they been fooled by lies about the Xinjiang region, Ma said. Instead of following a few Western countries in using Xinjiang-related issues to interfere with China's internal affairs, these people have affirmed the development of the Xinjiang region, exposed the political practices of the US and some Western countries, and defended international fairness and justice, he said.  source: GT

And here what the head of the World Muslim Communities Council reported:

HE Dr Ali Rashid Al Nuaimi, Chairman of The World Muslim Communities Council, met with officials from China’s Xinjiang region on the sidelines of his visit to China.

HE Dr Ali Rashid Al Nuaimi headed the Council's delegation, which included clerics and intellectuals from various countries worldwide, including UAE, Egypt, Syria, Bosnia, Serbia, Tunisia, Albania, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, and South Sudan.

HE hailed the efforts of the Chinese authorities in combating terrorism in Xinjiang and praised the interest and determination of the Chinese leadership to serve all people in the region.

The Chairman of TWMCC added that the relationship between Islamic civilisation and China is historical and characterised by friendship, cooperation and alliance. HE pointed out that wise people all over the world need a safe, stable and prosperous China, especially since China's security and stability are not only a national interest but a global interest.

HE Dr Ali Rashid Al Nuaimi emphasized that caring for Muslims in China is a great necessity, and we must make it clear to the world that ethnic, religious and national affiliations do not conflict but complement each other.

The Chairman of TWMCC stressed the necessity for a national framework to be comprehensive and brings together all identities, and pride in identity, religion and belonging must be reinforced by the educational curriculum.

HE pointed out that Uygur youth need persuasive speech to win their minds to not fall prey to terrorist groups... Source: TWMCC

Wednesday, December 14, 2022

China: Our investments and aid to Africa are not a trap, but a benefit

    Wednesday, December 14, 2022   No comments

Chinese Ambassador to the United States, Chen Gang, has criticized allegations that China is creating a "debt trap" in Africa.

 "The continent should be a place for international cooperation, rather than an arena in which major powers compete for geopolitical gains," Gang said, on the sidelines of the US-Africa leaders' summit in Washington, which brings together leaders of 49 African countries and the African Union.

 The Chinese ambassador added, "Chinese investments and financial aid to Africa are not a trap, but rather a benefit."

 "Over the past decades, China has provided loans to help Africa's economic and social development," Gang said. "You can see hospitals, highways, airports, stadiums. It's clear, it's not a trap, it's not a conspiracy, it's transparent and honest."


The Chinese ambassador to the United States referred to a study published last July by the British charitable foundation "Deep Justice", which showed that the volume of African countries' debts to Western private lenders represents 3 times the size of their debts to China, pointing out that the interest rate on Private loans are twice the rate of Chinese loans.


"These results prove that China is not the largest creditor in African loans, and that Chinese loans are only a small part," he stressed.


And yesterday, a spokesman for the US Department of Defense (Pentagon), Patrick Ryder, warned, that the development of the relationship between African countries and China will have negative repercussions on the relationship of these countries with the United States.

"We will be keen to issue statements for the ongoing discussions, and we continue to consult with our African partners, as any engagement in certain activities with the People's Republic of China may have some negative repercussions on their relations with us," Ryder said.


Earlier, US Deputy Commerce Secretary Don Graves acknowledged that the United States had fallen behind after China overtook US foreign investment in Africa.


And before the start of the summit of the leaders of the United States and Africa yesterday, the White House announced President Joe Biden's support for the African Union to become a permanent member of the Group of Twenty.


It is noteworthy that the US National Security Adviser, Jake Sullivan, said earlier that the United States will pledge, during the US-Africa summit, to support Africa with an amount of $ 55 billion over the next three years.


It is worth noting that the volume of trade between China and Africa exceeded $254 billion in 2021, compared to $64.33 billion between the United States and Africa.

To contextualize Western  aid to African country, the $55 billion pledged by the US to Africa’s 50+ countries over three years is less than the amount actually given to Ukraine by the US in just one year. In this context, the West should be encouraging other countries to invest more in Africa not ask African countries to reject Chinese investment.



After the statement of the Chinese-Gulf summit.. Beijing confirms its support for Iran's territorial sovereignty

    Wednesday, December 14, 2022   No comments

Chinese Vice Prime Minister Hu Chunhua stressed on Tuesday that "China supports Iran's national sovereignty, territorial integrity and national honor, and combats foreign interference."

"Beijing's will to develop comprehensive strategic relations with Tehran has never changed," Hu Chunhua said during his meeting with Mohammad Mokhber, Iran's first vice president.

For his part, Mokhbar saw that Beijing and Tehran have a common view against unilateralism and hegemony, noting that "respecting Iran's territorial integrity is a sensitive matter for us, and everyone must respect this point."

Mokhber also pointed out that the bilateral negotiations between the two countries are progressing well, thanking China for its support for Iran's presence in the Shanghai and BRICS organizations.

Tehran had summoned the Chinese ambassador to it, to protest against the statement of the Gulf-Chinese summit, which touched on the status of the Abu Musa, Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands, which are disputed by Iran and the UAE.

These steps came after the Gulf states and China issued, a few days ago, a joint statement, in which they touched on the support of the UAE in reaching a negotiated and peaceful solution to the issue of the three islands that Iran considers part of its territory, as well as calling on Iran to seriously engage in negotiations to return to the nuclear agreement.

Iran considered the statement an interference in its internal affairs, and stressed at the same time that the status of the three islands would not change and that they would remain Iranian forever.

During the meeting, Wu Chun Hua's informant reviewed the latest developments regarding the implementation of the joint cooperation program between the two countries, which extends to 25 years, and stressed the need to accelerate the implementation of this program.

It should be noted that the Chinese president also delivered a speech while attending the Arab-China summit.

In a related context, the Iranian Oil Minister, Javad Awji, announced on Wednesday, that Tehran and Beijing, during the visit of the Chinese Deputy Prime Minister to Iran, signed a number of agreements on the joint development of oil and gas fields.

"During Hu's visit, good agreements and memorandums were concluded with China on joint development of oil and gas fields," Oji said.

In April of last year, Iran and China signed a document on the comprehensive cooperation plan between the two countries for a period of 25 years.

Tuesday, December 13, 2022

What is the prospect of negotiation with Russia after Merkel's recognition? The erosion of Western credibility

    Tuesday, December 13, 2022   No comments

Former German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, in an interview with the German newspaper "Zeit" recently, considered the Minsk agreement of 2014 as an attempt to give Ukraine enough time to prepare for war against Russia. She expressed doubt that the then NATO countries could have done everything they are doing now to help Ukraine.

The Minsk Agreement is a series of international agreements signed between 2014 and 2015 by the Tripartite Contact Group on Ukraine, which consists of Ukraine, Russia and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, mediated by the leaders of France and Germany, with the aim of ending the war in the Donbas region of Ukraine.

China reacted to the Merkel's revelation by issuing statements contending that the "Real intention behind Minsk agreements further destroys credibility of the West".

China's international media outlet, GT, which is aimed at communicating Chinese point of view to the West concluded that "They were just a stopgap to buy time for Ukraine and the West, and Western countries have never put real effort into resolving the differences with Russia over the Ukraine crisis."

The daily added:

What the former German leader stated tears down the last remaining bit of the "friendly" mask some Western countries put on with Russia. In the eyes of some Western countries, Russia is just a diplomatic and political "alien." Moreover, under the influence of Washington, some view Moscow as a so-called threat due to its huge military power and political system that does not meet the "Western standard." As a result, these countries have never stopped suppressing Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Merkel's confession about the Minsk agreements also showed that some Western countries, particularly the US, do not honor contractual obligations at all. They can go back on their words so easily. 

After Merkel's statements, Putin said that her statements were "disappointing," pointing out that "trust at the present time is almost non-existent, but after Merkel's statements it became unclear how to negotiate."

He explained that "it turned out that no one intended to implement the Minsk agreements," according to the recent German statements, and the statements of former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, stressing, "Only we were working sincerely."


Likewise, Putin considered Merkel's remarks to mean that "we were right to initiate the special military operation."

The Russian president said, "We are ready and open to negotiation, but the statements prompt us to think about guarantees and confidence-building measures," adding that "there is no general military mobilization, but rather some formations that can be replaced."

It is noteworthy that Merkel said, earlier, that she does not see a reason for her participation in the settlement of the Ukrainian crisis, and stressed that it "will be resolved through negotiations one day."

This came in response to a question put to her by the German newspaper "Zeit" about the possibility of resolving the Ukrainian crisis, noting that "all conflicts end at the negotiating table."

Merkel indicated that her previous attempts to settle the crisis between Russia and Ukraine "were aimed at preventing a clash between the two countries," pointing out that "the failure of these attempts does not mean that they were wrong."

Other Russian officials are now less motivated to negotiate any deals with Ukraine. Russian Senator Olga Kovidetti commented on Merkel's statements by saying: "The geopolitical collusion of Britain and the United States and their obedient vassal Ukraine on the deliberate delay in implementing the Minsk agreements with the aim of preparing Ukraine for conflict with Russia undermines the credibility of any subsequent negotiations and any agreements with these personalities Western politics.”

In turn, the State Duma Speaker said that Merkel's confession holds Germany and France, the guarantors of the Minsk Agreement, responsible for what is happening in Ukraine, morally and materially.

Even some European leaders were taken aback by Merkel’s revelations. Serbian President Aleksandar Vucic expressed his surprise at the statements of former German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The Serbian president said that these are statements that change the position on what happened in Ukraine since 2014, adding that former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko previously indicated that they never intended to implement the agreements.

This European position is not limited to the Minsk Agreement. Rather, it is a repeat of what happened with the nuclear agreement with Iran. When US withdrew from the agreement, which was backed by the UNSC, European states essentially joined the US, in practice, and denied Iran all the rights given to it by the terms of the agreement.


Monday, December 12, 2022

China is trying to mend relations with Iran after It president signed a GCC countries Statement that contained reference to Iranian islands being part of UAE

    Monday, December 12, 2022   No comments

Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Wang Wenbin said at Monday emphasized that China and Iran enjoy traditional friendship. 

“China and Iran jointly decided to cement and grow a comprehensive strategic partnership. China stands ready to enhance communication and coordination with Iran to make new progress in bilateral relations. The two sides have signed a plan for China-Iran comprehensive cooperation, which started implementation early this year. China will work with Iran for the sound and steady growth of practical cooperation.” He noted in the statement.

The comments are in response to a question over whether China will not neglect its relations with Iran by developing relations with GCC countries.

During the recently held China-GCC Summit, a joint statement by China and the GCC was issued and a 2023-2027 action plan for strategic dialogue between China and the GCC was adopted.

Iran objected to parts of the statement that suggested that three islands now part of Iran should be returned to UAE through talks. In a strongly worded statement followed by the summoning of Chinese diplomat in Tehran, the Iranian foreign minister made it clear that Iran is prepared to reduce its ties with China should the latter adopt statements that question the territorial integrity of the Iran.  "in all frankness and transparency, Iran will not flatter anyone regarding its territorial integrity."

Chinese Vice Premier Hu Chunhua’s visit to Iran starts on Monday, which China believes will play a positive role in deepening China-Iran comprehensive strategic partnership, Wang said. 

China and Iran have a traditional friendship, and the consolidation and development of the China-Iran comprehensive strategic partnership are the common choices of both sides, Wang pointed out. China is ready to strengthen communication and coordination with Iran to push forward new progress in bilateral relations.

Sunday, December 11, 2022

Full text of Xi Jinping's keynote speech at China-Arab States Summit

    Sunday, December 11, 2022   No comments

Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech here Friday at the first China-Arab States Summit. The following is the full text of the speech:


Carrying Forward the Spirit of China-Arab Friendship and Jointly Building a China-Arab Community with a Shared Future in the New Era

Riyadh, 9 December 2022

Distinguished Colleagues,


Good afternoon!

At the outset, I wish to thank Saudi Arabia for the warm hospitality and thoughtful arrangement. I am very pleased to join you for the first China-Arab States Summit. The Summit is a milestone in the history of China-Arab relations, and will take us to a more promising future of friendship and cooperation.

China and Arab states enjoy a long history of friendly exchanges. We have come to know and befriend each other through the ancient Silk Road. We have shared weal and woe in our respective struggles for national liberation. We have conducted win-win cooperation in the tide of economic globalization. And we have upheld fairness and justice in the changing international environment. Together, China and Arab states have nurtured the spirit of friendship featuring "solidarity and mutual assistance, equality and mutual benefit, and inclusiveness and mutual learning."

Solidarity and mutual assistance is a distinct feature of China-Arab friendship. We trust each other, and have forged a brotherly friendship. We firmly support each other on issues involving our respective core interests. We work hand in hand and make progress together to realize the dream of national rejuvenation. We brave wind and storms together in fighting the COVID pandemic. The China-Arab future-oriented strategic partnership of comprehensive cooperation and common development is unbreakable.

Equality and mutual benefit is a constant driver for our friendship. China and Arab states have set an example for South-South cooperation in pursuing mutually beneficial collaboration. The two sides have established 17 cooperation mechanisms under the framework of the China-Arab States Cooperation Forum. Over the past decade, our trade has grown by 100 billion U.S. dollars, with the total volume exceeding 300 billion dollars; China's direct investment in Arab states was up by 2.6 times, with the stock of investment reaching 23 billion dollars; over 200 Belt and Road projects have been carried out, benefiting nearly two billion people of the two sides.

Inclusiveness and mutual learning is a key value inherent in our friendship. We appreciate each other's civilizations, and have written a splendid history of mutual learning. We keep drawing wisdom from each other's time-honored civilizations, and jointly promote "peace, harmony, integrity, and truth", the very essence of civilization. We stay true to our principles despite the clamour for "clash of civilizations", advocate together inter-civilizational dialogue, oppose discrimination against particular civilizations, and endeavor to safeguard the diversity of world civilizations.



The world today is in a new period of turbulence and transformation. The Middle East is undergoing new and profound changes. The aspiration of the Arab people for peace and development is much more compelling, and their call for equity and justice is stronger than ever. As strategic partners, China and Arab states should carry forward the spirit of China-Arab friendship, strengthen solidarity and cooperation, and foster a closer China-Arab community with a shared future, so as to deliver greater benefits to our peoples and advance the cause of human progress.

- We should stay independent and defend our common interests. China supports Arab states in independently exploring development paths suited to their national conditions and holding their future firmly in their own hands. China is ready to deepen strategic mutual trust with Arab states, and firmly support each other in safeguarding sovereignty, territorial integrity and national dignity. Our two sides should jointly uphold the principle of non-interference in other countries' internal affairs, practice true multilateralism, and defend the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries.

- We should focus on economic development and promote win-win cooperation. We should strengthen synergy between our development strategies, and promote high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. We should consolidate cooperation in traditional areas including economy and trade, energy and infrastructure development. In the meantime, we should strengthen new sources of growth such as green and low-carbon development, health and medical services, and investment and finance, and expand new frontiers including aviation and aerospace, digital economy and peaceful use of nuclear energy. We should also tackle major challenges like food security and energy security. China will work with the Arab side to implement the Global Development Initiative (GDI) and drive sustainable development of South-South cooperation.

- We should uphold regional peace and strive for common security. China supports the Arab side in promoting political settlement of hotspot and challenging issues with Arab wisdom, and build a common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security architecture in the Middle East. China urges the international community to respect the role of the Middle East people as masters of their own affairs, and add positive energy to the security and stability of the region. China welcomes the Arab side to participate in the Global Security Initiative (GSI), and will continue to contribute Chinese wisdom to promoting peace and tranquility in the Middle East.

- We should increase exchanges among civilizations to enhance mutual understanding and trust. We need to increase personnel exchange, deepen people-to-people cooperation, and promote the exchange of governance experience. We need to jointly oppose Islamophobia, carry out cooperation on deradicalization, and reject association of terrorism with any particular ethnic group or religion. We need to advocate humanity's common values of peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, and set an example of inter-civilizational exchanges and mutual learning in the new era.

We are pleased to see the decision by the Summit to build a China-Arab community with a shared future in the new era and to formulate the Outline of the Comprehensive Cooperation Plan Between China and Arab States, laying out the blueprint for future China-Arab relations. As the first follow-up step of that decision, China will, in the next three to five years, work with the Arab side to advance eight major cooperation initiatives in areas including development support, food security, public health, green innovation, energy security, inter-civilizational dialogue, youth development, and security and stability. China has briefed the Arab side on the details of the eight initiatives, and will work with the Arab side to promote their early implementation and strive for early harvest.



The Palestinian issue bears on peace and stability in the Middle East. The historical injustices done to the Palestinian people should not be left unattended indefinitely. The legitimate rights and interests of a nation are not up for trade, and the demand to establish an independent state shall not be denied. The international community should stay firm in its commitment to the two-state solution and the principle of "land for peace", make resolute efforts to promote peace talks, provide more humanitarian and development assistance to Palestine, and strive for a just settlement of the Palestinian issue at an early date. Recently, through the efforts of Arab states, important progress has been made in Intra-Palestinian reconciliation. China welcomes these developments. I would like to reiterate that China firmly supports the establishment of an independent State of Palestine that enjoys full sovereignty based on the 1967 border and with East Jerusalem as its capital. China supports Palestine in becoming a full member of the United Nations, and will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to Palestine, support livelihood projects in the country, and increase donations to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).



Recently, the Communist Party of China successfully convened its 20th National Congress. The Congress laid out the tasks and path of advancing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation on all fronts through Chinese modernization, and provided a blueprint for China's future development. China will stay committed to upholding world peace, promoting common development, and building a community with a shared future for mankind. China remains firm in pursuing an independent foreign policy of peace and upholding international fairness and justice. China is committed to promoting friendship and cooperation with other countries based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and will work to deepen and expand global partnerships. Acting on a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, China will continue to promote high-standard opening up and advance high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. By doing so, we wish to create new opportunities for Arab states and all other countries with China's new development.



A great cause begins with a dream and turns into reality through hard work. Let us carry forward the spirit of China-Arab friendship, jointly build a China-Arab community with a shared future in the new era, and usher in an even brighter future for our relations.

Thank you!  


Translation provided by Xinhua


In related news; the Chinese president signed the GCC statement which included a reference to Iranina islands UAE wants to annex. Iranian foreign minister issued immediately a statement saying "in all frankness and transparency, Iran will not flatter anyone regarding its territorial integrity." His office then summoned the Chinese ambassador to Tehran, during which Iran expressed its "strong dissatisfaction and protested against China's involvement in the issue of Iran's territorial integrity."

Responding to this objection, China will be sending the Chinese Deputy Prime Minister for a visit to Iran this week perhaps to address what Iran sees as "mistake made by the Chinese president in Riyadh."

Thursday, December 08, 2022

A Saudi-Chinese agreement to hold a summit between the two leaderships every two years and to sign agreements worth billions of dollars.. The Saudi Crown Prince affirms the Kingdom’s commitment to the “One China” policy

    Thursday, December 08, 2022   No comments


A Saudi diplomatic source in Riyadh told the German news agency that “the Saudi and Chinese sides agreed to hold a summit between the two leaderships every two years,” without disclosing further details.

The agreement comes during Chinese President Xi Jinping's visit to the Kingdom, which is the second, and it came at the invitation of Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz.

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said today, Thursday, that Riyadh is firmly committed to the "one-China" principle and supports Beijing in protecting its sovereignty, security and territorial integrity.

  In a meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping, bin Salman said: “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is firmly committed to the principle of ‘One China’, supports China in defending its sovereignty, security and territorial integrity, supports the measures and efforts that China is making to de-radicalize, and strongly opposes external interference in China's internal affairs under the pretext of protecting human rights,” according to China Central Television, according to Sputnik.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Mao Ning said that Chinese President Xi Jinping will attend the summit of the Chinese-Gulf Cooperation Council, in addition to the first-ever Chinese-Arab meeting, and indicated that the summit will be a “milestone” in the development of Chinese-Arab relations.

The Chinese president affirmed his country's readiness to strengthen relations and cooperation with Riyadh in various fields, and to support peace and stability around the world.

Today, the Chinese president held talks with Saudi leaders on the second day of his visit to Riyadh, Thursday, before witnessing the signing of billions of dollars worth of agreements between the two economic powers aspiring to enhance their rapprochement, despite Washington's warnings of the escalation of Beijing's influence.

Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman shook hands with Chinese President Xi Jinping when he got out of his car upon his arrival at Al Yamama Palace in Riyadh, the official residence of the king and the seat of the royal court, according to footage broadcast by state media.

Later, the Chinese president met with Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz, and in the presence of the crown prince, they signed the "comprehensive strategic partnership agreement between the Kingdom and China," according to the Saudi Press Agency. They also agreed to hold a meeting of the leaders of the two countries every two years.

"China-Saudi cooperation has broad future prospects, and the Chinese side regards the Saudi side as an important force in a multipolar world, and attaches great importance to developing a comprehensive strategic partnership with Saudi Arabia," Xi said, according to Chinese state media.

The Chinese president confirmed that Beijing is ready to expand oil trade with Riyadh and will "list Saudi Arabia as an outbound tourism destination" for Chinese citizens.

Xi was awarded an honorary doctorate in management from King Saud University "in recognition of his achievements and great efforts in management and leadership, and in gratitude for the thriving relationship and continuous cooperation between the two friendly countries," according to the agency.

And Saudi government media reported that the visit witnesses the signing of agreements worth about $29.3 billion in several fields, at a time when China wants to strengthen its economy affected by the Corona virus, while the Saudis, historical allies of the United States, seek to diversify their economic and political alliances.

- important partner -

During the visit, the Chinese president will participate in two Gulf-Chinese and Arab-Chinese summits attended by leaders of the countries of the region who have already begun to flock to the Saudi capital, including Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi and Lebanese caretaker Prime Minister Najib Mikati.

China, the largest consumer of Saudi oil, is strengthening its trade and political ties with a region that has long relied on the United States for military protection but has expressed fears of a diminishing American presence.

Hours after his arrival on Wednesday, Saudi state media announced 34 investment agreements in sectors including green hydrogen, information technology, transportation and construction.

The official Saudi Press Agency did not include additional details, but said that total trade between the two countries amounted to 304 billion Saudi riyals ($80 billion) in 2021 and 103 billion Saudi riyals ($27 billion) in the third quarter of 2022.

Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman believes that China is an important partner in the “Vision 2030” economic reform, as he seeks to involve Chinese companies in huge and ambitious projects aimed at diversifying the economy away from fossil fuels.

These projects include the future city of NEOM, which has an investment value of $500 billion and will rely heavily on facial recognition technology and surveillance.

Saudi Investment Minister Khaled Al-Falih said that Xi's visit will contribute to raising the pace of economic and investment cooperation between the two countries, as the visit provides "returns" to Chinese companies and investors, according to the Saudi Press Agency.

- Interviews with Arab leaders -

Diplomats based in Riyadh reported that the Chinese president may hold bilateral talks Thursday with other Arab leaders who arrived in Saudi Arabia ahead of Friday's summits.

Tunisian President Kais Saied will also arrive in Riyadh on Thursday. The Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, will also attend. Iraqi Prime Minister Mohamed Shiaa Al-Sudani and Moroccan Prime Minister Aziz Akhannouch confirmed their presence.

China's foreign ministry said Xi's program represented "the largest large-scale diplomatic activity between China and the Arab world since the founding of the People's Republic of China."

This was not lost on the eyes of the White House, which warned of "the influence that China is trying to develop around the world."

"We are aware of the influence that China is trying to expand around the world," John Kirby, a spokesman for the National Security Council at the White House, told reporters. The Middle East is certainly among these regions where they want to deepen their level of influence,” he said, adding, “We believe that many of the things they seek, and the way they seek them, are not compatible with maintaining the international order governed by specific rules.”

"We're not asking countries to choose between the United States and China, but as the president has said many times, we believe the United States is certainly in a position to lead in this strategic competition," Kirby continued.

Washington has long been a close partner of Riyadh, but the relationship has recently soured over disagreements over energy policy, US security guarantees to countries in the region, and human rights.

Xi is making his third trip abroad since the COVID-19 pandemic prompted China to close its borders and embark on a series of lockdowns, hurting its giant economy.

Tuesday, November 22, 2022

Germany: The first cause of Europe's crisis is the rise of Asia, not the Ukraine war

    Tuesday, November 22, 2022   No comments

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz confirmed that "the past 30 years of low inflation and stable economic growth in Europe were exceptional," stressing that "the conflict in Ukraine is not the main reason for the end of this era, but it has accelerated it."

Today, Tuesday, during an economic forum that brought together representatives of economic companies in Berlin, Scholz said: "Today we are in a new stage of globalization, and over the past 30 years, here in Europe and North America, we have witnessed stable growth, low inflation and high employment rates." And the conflict in Ukraine It hastened the end of this era, but it's not the main reason."

"The real reason is the growth of Asian economies, which compete with Europe in energy, raw materials and technology," Scholz said, warning "once again of a decline in globalization" and calling for "economic diversification."

"The real reason is the growth of Asian economies." German Chancellor Olaf Scholz.

He stressed that "Germany will not make the mistake of entering into an energy dependency, such as the one that has arisen in recent years with Russia with regard to natural gas supplies for the second time," and added, "What I understood after holding a number of talks with representatives of the German economy is that this mistake It won't happen to us again."

During the forum organized by the Bavarian daily "Süddeutsche Zeitung" newspaper, Scholz explained the types of challenges facing the German economy, and his ambition to diversify its sources of energy supply in multiple regions, from now on. He promised the Germans that he would "work so that the German economy and Germany can regain its place as a place for business, and get through the hard times."

Sunday, October 09, 2022

Chinese firms put deeper roots in Pakistan in post-flood reconstruction; more joint efforts needed for regional recovery

    Sunday, October 09, 2022   No comments

Chinese infrastructure companies in Pakistan are playing an increasingly important role in supporting the regional economy and livelihoods as the country looks for more joint efforts from the international community to facilitate the gradual recovery from the lingering devastation of recent floods.

While Chinese companies have taken an active approach in providing constant aid, they have also beefed up efforts to maintain the smooth operation of their projects in some key areas such as power generation and housing in Pakistan, as the country, hit by unprecedented floods in September, has seen its economic recovery slowing down.

Industry insiders and experts said that more joint efforts, including safety guarantees for local personnel and projects of Chinese companies, are needed more than ever to ensure the smooth operation of these projects.

Read the full story...

Tuesday, October 04, 2022

How has the Chinese president restructured his army to become the largest power in the world?

    Tuesday, October 04, 2022   No comments

During the decade of Xi Jinping's rule, China has restructured the world's largest professional army, and developed a nuclear and ballistic arsenal capable of alarming its enemies.

As China's neighbors seek to follow this pattern, a third five-year term for the current Chinese president is likely to be accompanied by an acceleration in the arms race in the Asia-Pacific region.

China now has two aircraft carriers in service, hundreds of long- and medium-range ballistic missiles, thousands of combat aircraft, and the world's largest naval power, far ahead of the United States.

China's military budget has been rising for 27 years, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

According to the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, China now has about 350 nuclear warheads, twice the amount it had during the Cold War. US intelligence agencies estimate that this stockpile may more than double to 700 warheads by 2027. New nuclear missile silos are being built in the northwest of the country.

"They have a very large navy, and if they want to intimidate and put ships in the vicinity of Taiwan, they can really do it," the commander of the Seventh Fleet told US media, Carl Thomas.

At the same time, China's nuclear arsenal is increasing dramatically and may be able - according to the Pentagon - to be launched from land, sea and air.

And last July, the Chinese president warned in a speech that "the Chinese people will never allow any external force to oppress, oppress or enslave them, and whoever dares to do so will be destroyed in front of a great steel wall built by 1.4 billion Chinese." He stressed that the time for bullying his country is over.

In January 2021, China signed a pledge, along with Russia, the United States, Britain and France, that would "reduce the risk of nuclear conflict."

The United States of America expressed its "concern" over a report published by the "Washington Post", that China has begun building more than 110 silos for launching intercontinental ballistic missiles.

A 2021 Pentagon report stated that China "is the only adversary capable of combining its economic, diplomatic, military and technological power to pose a long-term challenge to a stable and open international order."

For years, the People's Liberation Army was considered outdated and ineffective, with one historian describing it as "the largest military museum in the world." It was equipped with old military equipment made in the former Soviet Union, and was based mainly on infantry units that did not perform well on the ground abroad.

During the Korean War, the People's Liberation Army intervened on the side of North Korea, losing 400,000 men, according to Westerners, or 180,000, according to Beijing. In 1979, he faced Vietnam during a brief but bloody war.

By the time Xi Jinping became commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 2013, reforms had begun. It was initiated in the 1990s by Jiang Zemin.

"All the major players in the Indo-Pacific are responding as quickly as possible to the modernization of the Chinese military," said Malcolm Davis, a former Australian defense official now at the Institute for Policy Strategy.

For its part, South Korea wants to develop a naval force capable of operating off its coast, and Australia plans to buy eight nuclear submarines with British and American assistance under the "Ocos Agreement".

Canberra is also talking about buying hypersonic weapons, long-range ballistic missiles, and even stealth bombers capable of striking anywhere in the world without being detected. Here, Malcolm Davis says, these projects reflect a realization that China has a growing ability to engineer the region according to its will.

According to the former Australian defense official, "the era in which the US Navy dominated the seas in the western Pacific is coming to an end," explaining: "We would not have seen Okus if the Chinese president had not been... In a way, he has done us a favor." big.”

Arms purchases are on the rise, from South Korea, which has developed its deep-sea navy, to Australia, which is buying nuclear submarines.

According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, based in London, defense expenditures last year exceeded one trillion dollars in the Asia-Pacific region.

China, the Philippines and Vietnam have doubled their military spending over the past decade, and South Korea, India and Pakistan are not far from them. Even Japan presented this year a record budget in the field of defense, ending its reservations and talking about an "increasingly violent" security environment.

Wednesday, September 21, 2022

Chinese president calls on military to focus on preparing for military action

    Wednesday, September 21, 2022   No comments

Chinese President Xi Jinping has called on the Chinese People's Liberation Army to "focus on preparing to engage in real combat".

According to China Central Television, the Chinese president sent such instructions to the participants of the National Defense and Military Reform Symposium, held in Beijing, which was attended by members of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China Central Committee.

The Chinese president also instructed to strictly adhere to the plan to achieve the goals of the reform of the army, noting the need to strictly adhere to the path of implementing the pre-set reform goals.

Earlier, in response to US President Joe Biden's statements about the possibility of using the US military to protect Taiwan, the Chinese government expressed its willingness to "take all necessary measures" to protect its state's sovereignty.

In turn, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi urged the United States to adopt a rational and pragmatic policy, and act on the Taiwan issue correctly.

At a meeting with former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in New York, Wang Yi said that "any cold war between Beijing and Washington would be disastrous for bilateral relations and the entire world."

On Tuesday, US President Joe Biden announced that the United States does not support Taiwan's independence from China, despite their joint cooperation, stressing that Washington will provide protection to Taiwan in the event of a military conflict with China.

China earlier vowed to take legitimate and necessary countermeasures.

Monday, September 19, 2022

Media Review: India's economy has surpassed that of the United Kingdom in terms of size, making it the fifth largest in the world

    Monday, September 19, 2022   No comments

India succeeded this year by taking advantage of the events surrounding it and getting as far as possible from the war in Ukraine and the sanctions imposed by European countries on Russia, so that its economy exceeded the United Kingdom and made it the fifth largest economy, knowing that this transgression is not the first time, as India, the former British colony, has already emerged as the fifth The strongest economy in the world, surpassing Britain and France in 2019, according to a report by the World Population Review Center, based in the British capital, London.

Weeks ago, the International Monetary Fund revealed in its latest figures that just a decade ago, India's GDP was the eleventh in the world, but with 7% growth expected for 2022, India's economy has surpassed that of the United Kingdom in terms of size .

According to the International Monetary Fund, the growth of the Indian economy was accompanied by a period of rapid inflation in the United Kingdom, which led to a cost-of-living crisis and the risk of a recession, according to what the Bank of England predicted.

The IMF also explained that this situation, along with a turbulent political period and Brexit, led to Indian production exceeding the United Kingdom in the last quarter of 2021, with the first of 2022 offering no change in the arrangement.

Looking ahead, the International Monetary Fund expects India to overtake the UK more until 2027, making India the fourth largest economy by then, and leaving the UK in sixth place.

On an adjusted basis, using the dollar exchange rate on the last day of the first quarter, India's economy in "nominal" monetary terms in the quarter ending March was $854.7 billion. On the same basis, the UK economy was at $816 billion.

Reasons for the growth of the Indian economy

And the newspaper "The Guardian" revealed that one of the main reasons for the rise of India's economy is its ability to develop its manufacturing sector.

The newspaper considered that India has already benefited from a large educated middle class, which contributed to the development of the information technology and pharmaceutical sectors on a global level.

It also has strong consumer demand, which accounts for about 55 percent of the economy, compared to less than 40 percent in China, according to the newspaper.

Indian President Modi's market reforms, which included lowering the corporate tax from 35% to 25%, and opening India to more foreign investment, have also contributed to the liberalization of entrepreneurs.

The same context was reported by the American newspaper "The New York Times", which attributed this growth to a set of government policies, including increased public investment, forgiveness for debtors, credit guarantees that helped keep inflation relatively under control, and time the public from economic shocks.

Good relations with Moscow and Brussels in the service of the economy

In the same article, The New York Times noted that India's purchase of discounted oil from Russia, contrary to the wishes of Western allies, helped prevent the country's energy prices from rising.

India's neutral stance on the war in Ukraine has also allowed the volume of trade between India and Russia to rise by nearly 120% this year, according to Russian Presidential Aide Yuri Ushakov.

Indian Ambassador in Moscow Pavan Kapoor also noted that the volume of trade between Russia and India has been growing in size and scope in recent months. He added that companies in both countries are working to overcome obstacles to closer cooperation posed by sanctions.

India has moved towards enhancing exchange with partner countries using local currencies, which will strengthen its currency, and is currently working with Moscow on taking bilateral measures to expand the use of national currencies in mutual settlements.

Likewise, India has boosted its purchases of Russian crude over the past six months, while the United States has repeatedly urged New Delhi to support setting a price ceiling for Russian oil, which the latter has not agreed to.

Data in July showed that India's imports of crude oil from Russia jumped to a record level of about 950,000 barrels per day in June, which constitutes about 20% of the total imports of the third largest consumer of crude in the world.

On the other hand, India decided, in June, to resume negotiations with the European Union after a 9-year hiatus, with the aim of concluding a free trade agreement at the end of 2023.

The European Union is India's third largest trading partner, and the value of exchanges between them amounted to about 120 billion euros in 2021.

Britain retreat

The decline in Britain's global ranking, according to the "Bloomberg" website, is an uncomfortable development for Prime Minister Liz Truss, whose country is facing the highest inflation rate in four decades, with the risks of economic recession rising.

The latest official data showed that the British economy grew less than expected in July, raising the risk that the country may have already entered a recession, with demand for electricity falling due to a sharp rise in energy fees, and the construction sector affected by a jump in the cost of raw materials.

Warnings of recession, inflation and economic problems in Britain continue daily, and recently, for example, British government experts warned that the country would plunge into a deeper energy crisis, within a year, without an immediate plan to improve homes and dramatically reduce demand for gas.

Sunday, September 18, 2022

Samarkand Declaration of the Council of Heads of State of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (Full text)

    Sunday, September 18, 2022   No comments
1. The leaders of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States (hereinafter referred to as "the SCO" or "the Organization"), as a result of the meeting of the Council of Heads of State in the city of Samarkand on 16 September 2022, declare the following.

2. Today, the world is undergoing global changes, entering a new era of rapid development and large-scale transformation. These fundamental processes are accompanied by stronger multipolarity, increased interconnectedness, accelerated pace of informatization and digitalization. Against this background, the current system of international challenges and threats is becoming more complex, the situation in the world is dangerously degrading, existing local conflicts and crises are intensifying and new ones are emerging.

3. The growing technological and digital divide, continued turbulence in global financial markets, global reduction in investment flows, instability in supply chains, increased protectionist measures and other barriers to international trade add to the volatility and uncertainty in the global economy.

4. The impacts of global climate change and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic pose additional challenges to economic growth, social well-being and food security, as well as to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. To this end, new approaches are required to promote more equitable and effective international cooperation and sustainable economic development.

5. The member states, based on the proximity or convergence of assessments of the current regional and international agenda, reaffirm their commitment to a more representative, democratic, just and multipolar world order based on the universally recognized principles of international law, multilateralism, equal, common, indivisible, comprehensive and sustainable security, multicultural and civilizational diversity, mutual benefit and equal cooperation among states with a central coordinating role for the UN.

6. The SCO Member States, in accordance with the principles of the SCO Charter, adhere to a line ruling out bloc, ideologized and confrontational approaches to addressing international and regional development problems and countering traditional and non-traditional challenges and threats to security. Taking into account the views of Member States, they confirm the relevance of initiatives to promote cooperation in building a new type of international relations in the spirit of mutual respect, justice, equality and mutual benefit, as well as forming a common vision of creating a community of shared destiny for humanity.

7. The Member States advocate respect for the right of peoples to independently and democratically choose their political and socio-economic development, and stress that the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity of States, equality, mutual benefit, non- interference in internal affairs, and non-use or threat of use of force are the basis for sustainable development of international relations. They reaffirm their commitment to peaceful settlement of differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation.

8. The member states reaffirm the non-targeting of SCO against other states and international organizations and openness to extensive cooperation with them in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, the SCO Charter and international law based on the consideration of mutual interests and common approaches to solving regional and global problems.

9. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization today has firmly established itself as an authoritative and influential multilateral association whose activities are aimed at ensuring peace, security and stability, jointly confronting new challenges and threats in the SCO region, and strengthening trade, economic, cultural and humanitarian relations among SCO countries.

10. The member States emphasize the historic significance of the SCO Charter adopted 20 years ago, which laid the foundation for close, fruitful and multifaceted cooperation among the SCO member States based on the "Shanghai spirit" of mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, mutual consultation, respect for cultural diversity and the desire for joint development. They believe that consistent implementation of these principles contributes to a new model of regional cooperation that makes a constructive contribution to strengthening mutually beneficial multilateral relations in Eurasia.

11. The Member States intend to further develop cooperation in the fields of politics and security, trade, economy, finance and investment, cultural and humanitarian relations with the aim of building a peaceful, secure, prosperous and environmentally friendly planet Earth, achieving a harmonious coexistence of man and nature.

12. Underlining the significance of the 15th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty on Long-term Neighbourliness, Friendship and Cooperation of the SCO Member States, the leaders of the SCO member States approved the Comprehensive Plan for its implementation for 2023-2027. The Member States will further increase the SCO's participation in efforts to ensure peace and security, advocating the settlement of international and regional conflicts by exclusively peaceful political and diplomatic means in order to strengthen relations between the Member States so that the friendship of their peoples is passed on from generation to generation.

13. The Member States consider Central Asia to be the core of SCO and support the efforts of the countries of the region to ensure prosperity and peace, sustainable development and the formation of a space of good-neighbourliness, trust and friendship. They advocate further strengthening the role of SCO in enhancing stability and socio-economic development in the region, welcome the holding of regular consultative meetings of the heads of State of Central Asia and, in this regard, note the success of the regular summit on 21 July 2022 (Cholpon-Ata, the Kyrgyz Republic).

14. The Member States believe that the ongoing efforts to enhance connectivity between Central Asia and South Asia contribute to the common goal of ensuring prosperity and security in the vast SCO region by building sustainable trade, economic, transport and communication links and strengthening the dialogue among civilizations.

15. The Member States expressed deep concern over the security threat posed by terrorism, separatism and extremism in all its forms and manifestations and strongly condemned terrorist acts around the world. They stressed the importance of consistent implementation of the 2022-2024 Programme of Cooperation of the SCO Member States in countering terrorism, separatism and extremism (Dushanbe, 17 September 2021).

16. Member States, while reaffirming a strong commitment to fight terrorism, separatism and extremism, resolve to continue to take active measures to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, cut off terrorist financing channels, suppress terrorist recruitment and cross-border movement, counter extremism, radicalization of youth, spread of terrorist ideology, and eliminate sleeper cells and places used as terrorist safe havens.

17. Member States note the inadmissibility of interference in the internal affairs of States under the pretext of countering terrorism and extremism, as well as the inadmissibility of the use of terrorist, extremist and radical groups for selfish ends.

18. The member States consider it important to step up joint efforts of the international community to counter attempts to draw young people into the activities of terrorist, separatist and extremist groups, paying particular attention to preventing the spread of religious intolerance, aggressive nationalism, ethnic and racial discrimination, xenophobia and ideas of fascism and chauvinism.

19. The Member States note the effective work of the SCO Regional Anti- Terrorist Structure in promoting cooperation among competent authorities in combating terrorism, separatism and extremism. The parties stress the importance of implementing practical measures aimed at strengthening its capacities for practical cooperation in these areas.

20. The Member States, in accordance with their national legislation and on the basis of consensus, will seek to develop common principles and approaches to form a unified list of terrorist, separatist and extremist organizations whose activities are prohibited on the territories of the SCO member states.

21. The Member States noted the results of the joint anti-terrorism exercises of the competent authorities of the SCO member states "Pabbi - Anti-Terror - 2021" and the joint border operation of the border services of the competent authorities of the SCO member states "Solidarity - 2019-2021", as well as the effective presidency of the Republic of India in the SCO RATS Council (2021-2022).

22. The Member States consider it necessary to implement the decision of the SCO CHS on improvement of mechanisms to counter challenges and threats to security of the SCO Member States taking into account the relevant initiatives on establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Anti-Drug Centre in Dushanbe as a separate permanent body (Republic of Tajikistan); on establishment of the Universal Centre to Counter Challenges and Threats to Security of the SCO member-states based on the SCO Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure in Tashkent city.

23. The SCO Member States will continue to cooperate in the field of international information security on the basis of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states of 16 June 2009 (Ekaterinburg) and the corresponding Cooperation Plan for 2022-2023.

24. Member States will develop cooperation among relevant authorities in Member States to promote digital literacy in order to bridge the digital divide.

25. Member States emphasize the key role of the UN in countering threats in the information space, creating a safe, fair and open information space built on the principles of respect for state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

26. They consider it important to ensure the equal rights of all countries to regulate the Internet and the sovereign right of States to manage it in their national segment.

27. Member States are categorically against the militarization of the ICT sphere, considering it necessary to ensure the use of modern technologies for peaceful purposes, to create a safe, fair and open information space built on the principles of respect for state sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries.

The Member States reiterate the key role of the United Nations in countering threats in the information space. They support the development of universal rules, principles and norms of responsible behavior of states in this area, including welcoming the launch of a comprehensive international convention on combating the use of ICTs for criminal purposes under the auspices of the UN. Member States will continue to cooperate in the relevant negotiation mechanisms at the UN and other international fora.

28. Member States call upon the international community to strengthen global cooperation in countering terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, with the UN playing a central role through full implementation of relevant UN Security Council resolutions and the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in accordance with the UN Charter and the principles of international law, without politicization or double standards, respecting the sovereignty and independence of all states, and to seek consensus on the adoption of a Comprehensive Convention on Combating International Terrorism.

29. Member States noted the outcomes of the international conference on the tenth anniversary of the adoption of the Joint Plan of Action to implement the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Central Asia (Tashkent, 3-4 March 2022).

30. The Member States noted the efforts of the Republic of Tajikistan in promoting multilateral cooperation in combating terrorism and its financing in the Central Asian region ("Dushanbe process") and holding the next high-level conference on "International and Regional Security and Cooperation in Border Management to Combat Terrorism and Prevent Movement of Terrorists" together with UN in Dushanbe on 18-19 October 2022.

31. Member States noted the nomination of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (2025-2026), the Kyrgyz Republic (2027-2028), the Republic of India (2028-2029), the Republic of Tajikistan (2028-2029), the Republic of Kazakhstan (2039-2040) as non-permanent members of the UN Security Council, as well as the nomination of the Kyrgyz Republic (2023-2025) and the People's Republic of China (2024-2026) for membership of the UN Security Council.) and the People's Republic of China (2024-2026) for membership of the UN Human Rights Council, the candidacy of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the post of President of the UN General Assembly for 2031-2032, and the candidacy of the Republic of Tajikistan for membership of the UN Economic and Social Council for 2024-2026.

32. The Member States, having noted the outcome of the Meeting of Secretaries of Security Councils of the SCO Member States (Tashkent, 18-19 August 2022), confirmed their readiness to further expand cooperation in countering threats to stability and security in the SCO region.

33. The Member States noted the outcome of the Meeting of the SCO Defence Ministers (Tashkent, 24-25 August 2022) and advocated further enhancement of defence and security cooperation. They also stressed the importance of holding regular joint military counter-terrorism command and staff exercises "Peace Mission" to enhance the level of cooperation in combating armed formations of international terrorist organizations and improve counter-terrorism methods.

34. Member States expressed their concern about the increasing threats posed by the increased production, trafficking and abuse of narcotic drugs, using the proceeds of drug trafficking as a source of financing of terrorism. They stressed the need for a joint and balanced approach in countering drug trafficking and their precursors and noted the importance of implementing the international drug control conventions and other relevant legal instruments.

35. The Member States note that illicit drug trafficking and its non-medical use are a threat to international and regional security and stability, sustainable economic development of States, the health and welfare of peoples, as well as the exercise of fundamental human rights and freedoms. They stress the importance of consolidating forces to combat illicit drug trafficking and advocate the further active development of practical cooperation in this area.

36. Member States intend to continue to work together to oppose attempts to legalize the non-medical use of drugs, based on the inadmissibility of the legalization of drugs, which is regarded as a flagrant violation of the three relevant international conventions.

37. The member states will continue to conduct regular joint operations to suppress illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, to take effective measures to prevent the spread of synthetic drugs, new psychoactive substances based on the SCO Anti-Drug Strategy for 2018-2023 and its Action Programme for its implementation. They noted the outcome of the Meeting of Heads of Competent Authorities of Member States Entrusted with Combating Illicit Drug Trafficking (Tashkent, 20 April 2022).

38. The Member States stand for active interaction with other interested states, regional, international organizations in this field. They noted the outcome of the joint SCO/UNODC high-level event (15 March 2022) during the 65th session of the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and stressed the importance of continuing the SCO's involvement in implementing the Paris Pact initiative.

39. The Member States consider the sustained implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the Iranian nuclear programme important and, in accordance with UNSCR 2231, call upon all participants to rigorously implement their commitments for the full and effective implementation of the document.

40. The Member States that are parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons advocate strict compliance with the provisions of the Treaty, the comprehensive and balanced advancement of all its objectives and principles, the strengthening of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime, the pursuit of nuclear disarmament, and the promotion of equal mutually beneficial cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

41. Member States again draw attention to the negative impact of unilateral and unrestricted build-ups of global missile defence systems by individual countries or groups of States on international security and stability. They consider unacceptable attempts to ensure their own security at the expense of the security of other States.

42. Member States advocate multilateral political and diplomatic responses to global and regional challenges and threats to security, and will enhance cooperation and actively promote the multilateral arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation process, including efforts in the Conference on Disarmament.

43. The Member States are in favour of maintaining outer space free of weapons of all kinds and agree that it is important to ensure strict compliance with the existing legal regime regarding the use of outer space for exclusively peaceful purposes. They emphasize the need to conclude an international, legally binding instrument that would strengthen transparency and provide credible assurances against an arms - race and non-deployment of weapons in outer space.

44. Member States emphasize the importance of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (BWC) as a pillar of the global security architecture. They stress the need for strict compliance with the BWC, including through the adoption of a Protocol to the Convention establishing an effective verification mechanism. They oppose the establishment of any mechanisms duplicating the functions of the BWC, including as regards the competence of the UN Security Council.

45. The Member States call for full compliance with the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC) as an effective disarmament and non- proliferation instrument. They stress the importance of the speedy destruction of all declared chemical weapons stockpiles. The Member States reaffirm their support for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and call for agreed decisions to overcome the divisions within the Organisation and to ensure its integrity and effective operation in accordance with the Convention.

46. The Member States believe that the early entry of the Protocol on Security Assurances to the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia into force will make a significant contribution to regional security and the strengthening of the nuclear non-proliferation regime for all signatory States.

47. The Member States proceed from the premise that there is no alternative to political and diplomatic solutions to conflict situations in various regions of the world on the basis of strict compliance with generally recognized norms and principles of international law.

The SCO Member States believe that one of the most important factors in preserving and strengthening security and stability in the SCO region is the speedy settlement of the situation in Afghanistan. They support the establishment of Afghanistan as an independent, neutral, united, democratic and peaceful State, free of terrorism, war and drugs.

Member States believe that it is critical to have an inclusive Government in Afghanistan, with representatives from all ethnic, religious and political groups of Afghan society.

The Member States, underlining the value of the long-standing hospitality and effective assistance extended by regional and neighbouring countries to Afghan refugees, consider the active engagement of the international community in facilitating their dignified, safe and sustainable return to their homeland to be essential.

Member States, in view of the evolving humanitarian situation in Afghanistan, supported continued efforts to assist the Afghan people.

48. The Member States noted the results of the XV Meeting of the SCO Forum (Russia, 26 May 2022) and stressed the importance of further development of the SCO Forum as a public consultative mechanism and a platform for expert dialogue on urgent issues of SCO business development.

49. Member States reaffirm their intention to develop practical cooperation in the field of law and justice, forensic science through the development of coordinated approaches to the exchange of experience, methodology of forensic examinations, advanced training of forensic experts.

50. They advocate the development of cooperation in the field of standard- setting, legal assistance, legal education of the population, as well as the continuation of efforts to create an online platform for the exchange of legal information, taking into account the provisions of national legislation.

51. Member States, in accordance with their national legislation, will enhance cooperation through their attorneys general's offices, ensuring law enforcement cooperation aimed at protecting human rights and countering contemporary challenges and threats of transnational crime, including the criminal use of ICTs, corruption, trafficking in drugs and their precursors, smuggling, terrorism, extremism, illegal migration, trafficking in persons, acts that infringe on the rights and freedoms of minors.

52. The Member States note that fruitful cooperation through the presidents of supreme courts is a reliable platform for improving joint activities in protecting human rights and freedoms, strengthening justice, the rule of law and the rule of law. This mechanism serves to harmonise approaches in the work of courts of SCO member states, improve the efficiency of inter-judicial cooperation and create conditions for deepening judicial reforms.

53. They will enhance cooperation in the forensic field, including information exchange and joint activities.

54. The member states attach importance to cooperation between supreme courts in the field of justice as an effective factor in strengthening mutual trust and friendship, development of good neighbourliness within the SCO.

55. The member states are convinced that corruption in all its manifestations is a threat to national and regional security, leads to a decrease in the efficiency of public administration, negatively affects the international prestige and investment attractiveness of states, and hinders their progressive socio-economic development. They are in favour of further strengthening international cooperation in the field of anti-corruption activities, increasing the authority of the UN and its role in the global anti-corruption fight and support the relevant UN Convention.

56. Member States have supported the establishment of legislative linkages and the sharing of experiences in governance and development.

57. Member States will continue the practice of sending SCO missions to observe presidential, parliamentary elections and referendums.

58. The Member States confirm SCO's openness for accession by interested states whose goals and aspirations meet the criteria and conditions contained in the normative legal documents of the Organization. They took note of the importance of the decision adopted on 17 September 2021 at the Dushanbe Summit to start the procedure for the admission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the SCO membership, in practical implementation of which the signature of the Memorandum of Understanding with a view to acquire the status of an SCO Member State took place on 16 September 2022 in Samarkand.

The Member States stressed the importance of the decision to start the procedure of accepting the Republic of Belarus as a member of the SCO.

59. The Member States note with satisfaction the adoption of decisions granting the Kingdom of Bahrain, the Maldives, the State of Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and the Republic of the Union of Myanmar the status of SCO dialogue partner. They noted the signing of memoranda on granting the status of SCO dialogue partner with the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the State of Qatar.

60. The Member States welcomed the signing of memoranda of understanding by the SCO Secretariat with the General Secretariat of the League of Arab States, UNESCO and the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

61. The Member States stressed that the expansion of the SCO and further deepening of cooperation with the SCO Observer States, Dialogue Partners and international associations will expand the potential of the Organisation and further enhance its role in the international arena as a multilateral mechanism for addressing topical contemporary issues, ensuring security, stability and sustainable development in the region.

62. Member States will continue to seek common ground on foreign policy issues of common interest, including in international organizations and international forums.

63. The Member States reaffirm the importance of continuing to improve the architecture of global economic governance and will consistently uphold and strengthen an open, transparent, equitable, inclusive and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system based on the principles and rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO), promote an open global economy, oppose protectionist measures and trade restrictions that are inconsistent with WTO principles, undermine the multilateral trading system They stressed that unilateral application of economic sanctions other than those adopted by the UNSC is inconsistent with the principles of international law and adversely affects third countries and international economic relations.

Member States call for strengthening the effectiveness of WTO as the key forum for discussing the international trade agenda and adopting the rules of the multilateral trading system. They emphasize the need for early and inclusive reform of the organization, focusing on its development and adaptation to modern economic realities, as well as effective implementation of monitoring, negotiation and dispute settlement functions.

64. Member States are in favour of encouraging regional economic cooperation in various forms, promoting an enabling environment for trade and investment with a view to achieving progressive free movement of goods, capital, services and technology.

65. The Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan, while reaffirming support for China's One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative, acknowledge the ongoing work to jointly implement the project, including efforts to link the construction of the Eurasian Economic Union and OBOR.

66. The Member States consider it important to utilize the potential of the countries of the region, international organizations and multilateral associations in order to create a space in Eurasia for broad, open, mutually beneficial and equal interaction in accordance with international law and taking into account national interests. In that regard, they noted the idea of establishing a Greater Eurasian Partnership involving the SCO countries, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and other interested States and multilateral associations.

67. The Member States noted the importance of further deepening cooperation between the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in ensuring security and stability in the region as well as on other issues of mutual interest. In this regard, they expressed support for institutional development of CICA.

68. The member states stressed the need for consistent implementation of the SCO Multilateral Trade and Economic Cooperation Programme and its Action Plan. They stressed that the SCO has developed significant economic and investment potential which contributes to the improvement of trade and economic cooperation. Expansion and deepening of interaction in financial, investment, industrial, transport, energy, agricultural and other fields, including through development and implementation of joint programs and projects, is in the interest of sustainable social and economic development in the SCO region.

Member States decided to establish an Special Working Group on Start-ups and Innovation, Special Working Group on Poverty Reduction and an Expert Working Group on Traditional Medicine.

69. Taking into account the importance of examining and comprehensively analyzing the factors affecting economic cooperation within the SCO, taking into account global and regional processes, and elaborating expert recommendations and proposals for the development of the SCO economic sector, the member states note the importance of continuing the practice of holding meetings of the SCO Consortium of Economic Think Tanks and the SCO Economic Forum.

70. The Member States advocate further deepening people-oriented interaction on improving the well-being and living standards of the population in the SCO region. They noted the results of the first meeting of the heads of SCO ministries and agencies on poverty reduction (Tashkent, 28 January 2022) and the International Conference on Poverty Reduction (Bukhara, 26-27 May 2022).

71. The Member States stressed the impact of COVID-19 on the dynamics of economic growth processes in the SCO region. In this regard, they consider it important to continue coordinating efforts to overcome the negative socio-economic consequences of the pandemic, including further implementation of the SCO member states' Joint Recommendatory Action Plan 2021-2023 (Dushanbe, September 17, 2021).

72. The Member States, noting the importance of e-commerce for the development of economic cooperation to increase employment and prosperity, instructed the Council of Heads of Government of SCO member states to take measures to improve the efficiency of cooperation in this area within the framework of the Meeting of Ministers responsible for foreign economic and foreign trade activities and the relevant Special Working Group.

73. The Member States advocate strengthening the potential of technoparks, joining efforts to develop the innovation ecosystem, conducting joint research and development, launching new digital projects in the SCO region, paying special attention to the implementation of the Concept on the creation of the SCO Member States Technoparks Pool of 2021.

74. The Member States noted that the creative economy could become one of the components of developing the SCO's innovative potential. They believe that support for creative industries will contribute to enhancing the competitiveness of SCO economies.

75. The Member States will continue to strengthen inter-regional cooperation by implementing the Inter-regional Cooperation Development Program, holding and further expanding the format of the SCO Heads of Regions Forum, including through the use by interested states of the SCO China Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Demonstration Zone in Qingdao.

In order to strengthen cooperation and develop the services sector and trade in services within the SCO, to enhance regional and global competitiveness, interested Member States approved the Framework for Cooperation in Trade in Services and the Joint Action Plan to Develop Intra-regional Trade in the SCO Region.

76. The Member States will further develop the potential of the SCO Business Council and SCO Interbank Association, promote joint initiatives of business communities to intensify cooperation in order to implement projects in the field of finance, high technology, transport and communications infrastructure, energy, investment, small and medium businesses in the SCO region.

77. The Member States stressed the need to provide financial support for project activities in order to unlock the full investment potential of the Organization and, in this regard, to continue consultations on the establishment of the SCO Development Bank and the SCO Development Fund (Special Account).

They noted the adoption by the interested SCO member states of the Road Map on Increasing the Share of National Currencies in Mutual Settlements and called for expansion of this practice.

78. The Member States will continue to cooperate in digital economy and support the development of digital technologies. They noted the results of the first meeting of the heads of ministries and agencies of the SCO Member States responsible for the development of information technologies (Tashkent, November 25, 2021) and the adoption of an Action Plan to implement the Concept of cooperation of the SCO member states in the field of digitalization and information and communication technologies.

79. In order to promote economic growth in the SCO Member states by creating an efficient and competitive transport and technological infrastructure, the Programme for Infrastructure Development of the SCO Member States was adopted.

Member States underline the importance of further deepening cooperation in transport sector, including the creation of new and modernization of existing international routes for road and rail transport, multimodal transport corridors and logistics centres, trade and tourism, introduction of digital, innovative and energy- saving technologies, optimization of cross-border procedures in accordance with international best practices and implementation of other joint infrastructure projects that ensure efficient.

80. The heads of delegations noted the outcome of the ninth meeting of SCO transport ministers (12 May 2022, Khiva). In order to develop transit potential in the SCO region, the heads of state approved the Concept of cooperation of the SCO Member States to develop interconnectivity and create efficient transport corridors.

Approaches to accelerate economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, further deepen regional economic cooperation and unlock international production and supply chains are captured in the Statement on Resilient, Reliable and Diversified Supply Chains adopted in the format of interested Member States.

81. They note the importance of consistent implementation of the Agreement between the Governments of the SCO Member States on Facilitation of International Road Transport (Dushanbe, 12 September 2014) and regular meetings of the Joint Commission on Facilitation of International Road Transport.

82. Member States will continue to develop cooperation between railway administrations based on the SCO Member States Railway Administration (Railway) Cooperation Concept of 2 November 2019.

83. Member States advocate the further development of modern logistics centres and joint action to coordinate and facilitate the interconnection of railway infrastructure, docking policies and regulations, scientific and technological innovation and capacity-building, exploring concrete measures to increase international intermodal container trains and further promote safe, stable and quality railway transport development.

84. The Member States noted the proposal of the Republic of Uzbekistan to establish in Central Asia under the aegis of the UN the Regional Center for Development of Transport and Communication Connectivity, as well as the proposal of the Republic of Kazakhstan to establish the UN Center on Sustainable Development Goals for Central Asia and Afghanistan.

85. The Member States stressed the need for further development of industrial cooperation and industrial cooperation within the SCO. They noted the outcome of the Second Meeting of the SCO Ministers of Industry (Tashkent, July 15, 2022), as well as the signing of the Program to promote industrial cooperation among the business communities of the SCO member states and the opening of the Uzbekistan-SCO Industrial Zone.

86. The Member States noted the outcome of the Meeting of the Energy Ministers of the SCO Member States (24 June 2022, Tashkent). They will continue to deepen cooperation between the SCO countries in the field of energy through practical implementation of the Concept of Energy Cooperation of the SCO Member States (12 August 2021, Dushanbe).

Member States stress the need to increase mutually beneficial cooperation in the energy sector, including efficient use of all types of energy resources, and support the application of various efficient economically and environmentally friendly technologies that reduce negative environmental impact and promote energy security and the transition to cleaner and greener energy sources in an energy efficient economy. They note the importance of jointly exploring ways to expand regional electricity interconnectivity in the SCO member states.

87. To this end, the Member States welcomed the adoption of the Programme of Cooperation of the SCO Member States in the Use of Renewable Energy Sources.

88. Member States stressed the commitment to build a sustainable economic system, including through the promotion of green and environmentally friendly technologies, as well as inclusive approaches to social development through the implementation of the SCO Green Belt Program (17 September 2021, Dushanbe).

89. Member States note the importance of cooperation in the fields of environmental protection, environmental security, mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change, biodiversity conservation and use, and the exchange of experience and operational information on these matters. They recognize that lack of access to safe drinking water, basic sanitation and healthy hygiene are major challenges of our time and note the need to focus on sustainable development and water management.

Member States are convinced that the climate agenda should not be used to introduce measures restricting trade and investment cooperation. Efforts will be made to establish an active dialogue with relevant international institutions in order to attract investment and finance joint projects and programs in the field of environmental protection and introduction of new environmentally friendly technologies, increasing the share of "green" economy.

90. Member States, taking into account a number of challenges facing the development of agriculture within the production cycle, advocate the introduction of modern technologies, active cooperation in the field of food security, prevention and control of transboundary epizootic diseases. In this connection they will continue practical implementation of the Joint Statement of the SCO Heads of State Council on Food Security (17 September 2021, Dushanbe) and note the approval of the Concept of cooperation of the SCO member states in the field of smart agriculture and agro-innovations and signing of the Agreement between the authorized bodies of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of plant quarantine.

The interested Member States note the expediency of using the site of the SCO Demonstration Base in Yanglin (PRC) for exchange and training in modern agricultural technologies.

91. Member States will continue to strengthen cooperation in the cultural, scientific, technical, educational, humanitarian and tourism spheres in order to further promote dialogue among civilizations and good-neighbourly and friendly relations in the SCO region. They will promote the enhancement of cultural diversity, cooperate in research and protection of the region's cultural and natural heritage.

92. Member States noted the outcome of the Seventh Meeting of the Heads of Sanitary and Epidemiological Services of the SCO Member States (9 December 2021, St. Petersburg). They consider it necessary to ensure the implementation of the SCO Comprehensive Plan of Joint Action to Address Epidemic Threats in the Region (10 November 2020).

93. Member States, while speaking out against the stigma attached to a new coronavirus infection, stressed the need to further strengthen international cooperation in combating its spread as well as in dealing with the global political and socio-economic consequences of the pandemic.

94. The SCO Member States note the need for joint efforts to build cooperation in the digitalization of health and consider the potential of telemedicine as part of the national strategies of the SCO member States to maintain and improve the health of their citizens. In this regard, they noted the adoption of the Concept of Cooperation of SCO Member States in the field of telemedicine.

95. Member States will continue to coordinate responses to public health emergencies of international importance, deepen scientific and technical cooperation in the development of drugs, vaccines and test systems, including on the basis of the Roadmap for cooperation between medical organisations of SCO member states in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

96. Member States noted the initiative of the Russian Federation to hold regular exercises by interested SCO Member States to identify and respond to sanitary and epidemiological emergencies, including through the use of mobile laboratories.

97. Member States support the leading role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in global health governance, including in protecting public health from threats of infectious disease epidemics in accordance with the WHO International Health Regulations (2005).

98. The SCO Member States, stressing the importance of further implementation of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in disaster management assistance (signed on October 26 2005 in Moscow), confirmed their willingness to step up joint efforts in this field. They will continue to strengthen interaction in such areas as exchange of operational information, training of personnel, holding of joint disaster and accident management exercises as well as promote cooperation in the field of disaster management in the border regions. The Member States will develop cooperation with the UN, other international and regional organizations in these areas.

99. The Member States note the importance of further strengthening cooperation in education within the SCO, expanding inter-university cooperation, holding forums of rectors, scientific conferences and symposia, and developing the activities of the SCO University. Seeking to expand cooperation in the field of digital learning in view of the trends of the world economy in the era of digital globalization, the member states noted the adoption of the SCO Digital Literacy Programme.

100. The Member States note the importance of further development of scientific and technological cooperation in the SCO space, express their willingness to conduct joint scientific research, exchange of experience between scientists and scientific organizations within the SCO to find new sources of economic growth and solutions to overcome common social challenges. In this connection they stress the need to implement in practice the Statement of the Council of SCO Heads of State on strengthening cooperation in the field of science, technology and innovation (September 17, 2021, Dushanbe).

101. The Member States advocate enhancing cooperation on youth on the basis of implementation of the provisions of the 2018 SCO Heads of State's Joint Address to Youth and Programme of Action for its implementation, and the 2021 Agreement between the competent authorities of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of youth work. They positively assessed the results of the meeting of the SCO Youth Council (Tashkent, 10 June 2022). They noted the importance of holding intellectual games-contests "Model SCO" for schoolchildren and students, holding start-up forums and competitions on innovations and start-ups among youth, conclaves of young scientists of volunteer movement development, as well as implementation of the "International SCO Youth Business Incubator" project under the SCO Youth Council.

102. Member States, noting the importance of actively supporting women's participation in political, economic, public, social and other spheres of activity, welcomed the SCO Women's Forum and SCO Women Entrepreneurs' Conference to be held in Samarkand on 17-18 August 2022.

103. In order to further strengthen mutual understanding and friendship the Member States consider it important to effectively implement the intergovernmental Agreement on Cooperation in Culture dated August 16, 2007 (Bishkek), including in the field of literature, including translation of classical works, cinematography, music, theatre and fine arts, museum work, exhibitions and other creative activities. In this context they noted the outcome of the Meeting of the SCO Ministers of Culture (May 19, 2022, Tashkent), the signature of the Memorandum between the authorised agencies of the SCO member states on cooperation in the field of museums and the initiative to create the Alliance of Museums of the SCO Member States.

104. Stressing the importance of further development of cooperation in the field of tourism, the SCO member states noted the results of the Meeting of the Heads of Tourism Administrations of the SCO Member States (19 May 2022, Tashkent), the signing of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in tourism, and also the holding of the Exhibition "Eight Wonders of the SCO" and the SCO Tourism Forum (19-20 May 2022, Tashkent).

105. In order to further promote the rich cultural and historical heritage of the peoples and tourism potential of the SCO member states, it was decided to declare the city of Varanasi (Republic of India) as the SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for 2022-2023.

106. Member States stressed that the celebration of the SCO Year of Culture in 2021 was an example of respectful treatment of national traditions and mutual enrichment of cultures in the territory of the Organisation.

In order to support the tourism industry and enhance the tourism attractiveness of the SCO cities and regions, the member states agreed to declare 2023 the SCO Tourism Year.

107. The Member States highly appreciate the contribution of public diplomacy institutions and cultural centres in the SCO Member States in building mutual trust, strengthening mutual understanding and expanding cultural and humanitarian ties within the Organisation. They noted the outcome of the SCO Public Diplomacy Forum (May 11, 2022, Tashkent), and also the work of the SCO Committee on Good Neighbourhood, Friendship and Cooperation, the SCO Cultural Integration Centre in Bishkek, the SCO Friendship and Cooperation Centre in Dushanbe and the SCO Public Diplomacy Centre in Tashkent.

108. The Member States consider it necessary to develop contacts in the media, press services of the authorities and digital space, including through the implementation of the Agreement between the governments of the SCO member states on cooperation in the media sphere (14 June 2019, Bishkek).

109. The Member States, noting the importance of promoting the goals, objectives, principles and key activities of the SCO among the general public in the region and around the world, approved the Statute on the honorary title of SCO Goodwill Ambassador.

110. The Member States, recognizing the role of sport as an important tool for peace, social inclusion and sustainable development, confirm their willingness to enhance cooperation in this field based on the principles of Olympism.

111. The Member States welcome the first Meeting of heads of relevant ministries and agencies responsible for the development of physical culture and sports of the SCO member states to be held on 20 May 2022 in Tashkent. They expect that the Meeting will become a platform for the coordination of cooperation of the SCO member states in the sphere of physical culture and sports, as well as the formation of promising areas of cooperation in this sphere.

112. The SCO member states noted the holding of SCO Kunming and Issyk- Kul Marathons (on 12 December 2021 and 14 May 2022), Dushanbe Half Marathon (13 June 2021) and Tashkent Half Marathon (27 March 2022) and expressed their support for holding such events on a regular basis, stressing their contribution to deepening friendship and mutual understanding between the peoples of SCO member states, and also to positioning the organisation on the international scene.

113. In view of the importance of preserving the ecological balance in the SCO region and restoring biodiversity, ensuring favourable conditions for the well- being of people and sustainable development, the SCO member states emphasise the need to implement in practice the Action Plan to Implement the 2022-2024 Concept of Cooperation among the SCO Member States in the Field of Environmental Protection.

114. The Member States, supporting the proposal of the Republic of Tajikistan to declare 2025 as the International Year for the Preservation of Glaciers, note the initiative to establish an International Fund for the Protection of Glaciers through the adoption of a UN General Assembly Resolution.

115. The SCO member states noted the adoption, at the initiative of the Kyrgyz Republic, of the resolution of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly "Nature knows no borders: transboundary cooperation as a key factor for the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of biodiversity" and of the 41st session of the UNESCO General Conference "Enhanced monitoring and research on mountain glaciers".

At the initiative of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Member States noted the adoption of the Resolution of the 76th session of the UN General Assembly on strengthening the interconnectedness of Central and South Asia.

116. Member States noted initiatives to adopt UN General Assembly resolutions declaring an "International Day for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education" and a "Decade of Action for Mountain Development" in 2023-2027 (Kyrgyz Republic) as well as an "International Year of Mobilizing Volunteers for Development" (Republic of Kazakhstan).

Member States noted the outcome of the 2nd High Level International Conference on the International Decade for Action, Water for Sustainable Development, 2018-2028 (Dushanbe, 6-9 June 2022).

117. Member States underlined the importance of further development of interaction with UN, with interested states and structures in solving the problem of Aral Sea associated with the drying of its basin on large-scale. They noted the adoption of the UN General Assembly resolution on declaring the Aral Sea region as a zone of ecological technologies and innovations (18 May 2021) as well as its initiative on launching the Multi-partner Trust Fund for Human Security in the Aral Sea region taking into account the parties' positions.

118. As a responsible and influential player in international efforts to ensure peace and stable development of Eurasia, SCO will continue to take coordinated steps to counter the growing threats and challenges in the region.

119. The member States, reaffirming their commitment to peace, joint development and equal relations based on the principles of mutual respect, friendship and good-neighbourliness, will continue to conduct a constructive and trusting dialogue, deepen effective multifaceted cooperation and make every effort to strengthen security and stability and ensure sustainable development in the SCO region.

120. The Member States commend the outcomes of the Republic of Uzbekistan's presidency of the SCO in 2021-2022, which have contributed to the further development of multifaceted mutually beneficial cooperation. They welcome the "Samarkand Solidarity Initiative for Common Security and Prosperity" put forward by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, aimed at ensuring peace and stability, wider international cooperation and promoting sustainable human development.

121. The presidency of the SCO for the forthcoming period passes to the Republic of India. The next meeting of the SCO Council of Heads of State will be held in 2023 in the Republic of India.


September 16, 2022


(DISCLAIMER - This is the approximate translation of Samarkand Declaration. Original Declaration is in Russian language)

Most popular articles


Frequently Used Labels and Topics

A Week in Review Academic Integrity Adana Agreement afghanistan Africa al-Azhar Algeria All Apartheid apostasy Arab Spring Armenia Arts and Entertainment Asia Bangladesh BRICS Brotherhood CAF Canada Caspian Sea Chechnya China CIA Civil society colonialism communism Conflict Constitutionalism Contras Corruption Coups Crimea Crimes against humanity Democracy Despotism Diplomacy Dissent Dmitry Medvedev Economics and Finance Economy Education and Communication Egypt Elections energy environment Erdogan Europe Events FIFA FIFA World Cup FIFA World Cup Qatar 2020 Food Football France freedom of speech Gaza GCC GDP Genocide geopolitics Germany Global Security Globalism globalization Greece Grozny Conference Hamas Health hijab History and Civilizations Human Rights Huquq Ideas IGOs Immigration Imperialism Imperialismm india Indonesia Instrumentalized Human Rights Inter International Affairs International Law Iran IranDeal Iraq ISIL Islam in America Islam in China Islam in Europe Islam in Russia Islam Today Islamic economics Islamic law Islamic Societies Islamism Islamophobia Jordan Journalism Khamenei Kurdistan Law and Society Lebanon Libya Majoritarianism Malaysia mass killings Media Media Bias Middle East Military Affairs Morocco Muslim Ban Muslim Women and Leadership Muslims Muslims in Europe Muslims Today Nationalism NATO Nelson Mandela Nicaragua Nigeria North America North Korea Nuclear Deal Nusra OPEC+ Pakistan Palestine Poland Politics and Government Populism Poverty Propaganda Prophet Muhammad Protests Public Health Putin Qatar Quran Racism Raisi Regime Change religion and conflict Religion and Culture Religion and Politics religion and society Resistance Rohingya Genocide Russia Salafism Sanctions Saudi Arabia Science and Technology SCO Sectarianism security sharia Sharia-compliant financial products Shia Soccer socialism Southwest Asia and North Africa Space War Sports Sports and Politics Supremacy SWANA Syria terrorism Tourism transportation Tunisia Turkey Turkiye U.S. Foreign Policy UAE uk ukraine UN United States Uprisings US Foreign Policy USA Volga Bulgaria wahhabism War and Peace War Crimes West Western Civilization Western Sahara WMDs women rights World and Communities Yemen Zionism

Search for old news

Find Articles by year, month hierarchy


Copyright © Islamic Societies Review. All rights reserved.