Showing posts with label Latin America. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Latin America. Show all posts

Monday, September 11, 2023

The summit of the “77 + China” group in Havana... increasing roles for the groups that reject hegemony

    Monday, September 11, 2023   No comments

The Havana Summit of the Heads of State and Government of the Group of 77 + China, which will be held in the Cuban capital, Havana, from September 15 to 16, is being held under special international circumstances and a combination of efforts and paths of joint bilateral and multilateral action to overcome hegemony. Western and its associated institutions and forums.

The summit comes under the title “Current Development Challenges: The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation,” as Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel announced last June, calling for action on this occasion to strengthen the unity of the member states of the group, and to take an effective decision on Collective and practical actions to confront contemporary challenges.

The largest intergovernmental group

The Group of 77 is the largest intergovernmental group of developing countries in the United Nations. It aims to collectively advance the economic interests of its members, as well as create common negotiating capacity within the scope of the United Nations.

The group began on June 15, 1964, at the initiative of 77 countries that signed the Joint Declaration, which was issued at the closing session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Geneva.

Although the membership of the Group of 77 has reached 134 countries today, it has maintained its original name due to its historical significance. It represents two-thirds of the members of the United Nations and 80% of the world’s population.

The group's first ministerial meeting was held in Algeria in 1967, and represented a qualitative shift in its structure, as the Algeria Charter was adopted, which became the group's institutional structure, and also paved the way for a permanent institutional structure that grew continuously.

The structure of the group gradually developed, as this development led to the establishment of the pacts of Rome, Vienna, Paris, Nairobi, and Washington. The group also has representatives in several international institutions and paths, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). ", and others.

The group takes the United Nations building in New York as its headquarters, and the presidency of the group is transferred between member states in a vote that takes place every year at the end of each session.

Since its establishment, the Group of 77 has enjoyed China's support, as Beijing attended the group's meetings as a "special guest" at first, until coordination between the two parties began in 1991.

In 1996, the 20th Ministerial Session of the organization adopted its current name, and then the first statement was issued under the name “Group of 77 + China”, and the name has been adopted since then.

China confirms that it supported the legitimate demands of the group and maintained cooperative relations with it, despite the fact that it is not a member of it.

Collective goals for the countries of the South

According to its official website, the G77+China aims to provide the means for countries of the South to articulate and advance their collective economic interests, and to promote South-South cooperation for development.

The group seeks to enhance its joint negotiating capacity on all major international economic issues within the United Nations system.

In the political context, some attribute the roots and reasons for its establishment as an international group and bloc to the fact that it is the economic complement to the bloc of Non-Aligned Movement countries, as it was established due to the geopolitical and economic conditions that characterized the post-Cold War period, and as a middle way between the two social and economic systems existing at that time, the liberal capitalist system. The free market economy, the socialist system, and the commanded market economy.

The group's main decision-making process is known as the South Summit, and the first summit was held in the Cuban capital, Havana, in April 2000.

It is also noteworthy that the member states finance the group's activities through contributions, and enjoy a joint work system at the level of its various branches. The presidency of the organization is also transferred on a regional basis, between Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean countries, and the period extends for one year in all branches.

Havana Summit...intensification of the roles of counter-hegemonic blocs

According to what was announced by Cuba's Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Pedro Luis Pedroso, Cuba, as the current president of the group, hopes that the upcoming Havana summit will contribute to strengthening the voice of the group in the ongoing intergovernmental negotiation processes, which aim to hold a “sustainable development” summit in September 18 and 19, in New York, and the “Future” Summit, scheduled to be held in September 2024, are two events that aim to chart a future of peace and sustainable development for the peoples of the Global South.

For his part, the Cuban President spoke, during his speech at the recent BRICS summit, that the Group of 77 and the BRICS group bear the responsibility of calling for a change in the current international system, indicating that “this is not an option, this is the only alternative.” .

Cannell stressed that the Group of 77 and the BRICS have historically called for a real transformation in the current international financial structure, describing it as “extremely unfair, outdated, and suffering from dysfunction.”

This year's meetings in Cuba come in light of transformations and coups at the global level, while the role of political blocs, groupings, and economic and geopolitical alliances is growing.

The current summit also gains special importance, for more than one factor, including that related to the location of its holding, as some Western media outlets reported that Cuba “by presiding over the summit, will seek to lead like-minded countries in standing against the United States.”

The upcoming summit also represents special importance as the world is preoccupied with talking about the Global South, and the authenticity and history that the group represents in its representation of the countries of the South.

In the same context, the American ABC network spoke, in a report, about the definition of the Global South, stressing that “at one stage the Group of 77 was considered the Global South.” It is also noted that the summit also comes after the “Voice of the Global South” summit was held. In India, which took place last January, in addition to the recent BRICS summit in South Africa, last August, which indicates the increasing importance of these groupings and frameworks.

Friday, June 16, 2023

The Four Amigos: How the close alliance grew between the far Global South Flanks

    Friday, June 16, 2023   No comments

There is no doubt that Iranian President Ibrahim Raisi's current visit to South American countries, Venezuela, Nicaragua and Cuba, constitutes a strengthening of Iran's course of cooperation with Latin American countries and the confrontation of unilateral US sanctions.

This path has brought the far one closer geographically, and has developed rapidly since the beginning of the new millennium, with the emergence of a new generation of Bolivarian leaders.

And with the presence of leaders such as the late Hugo Chavez, Evo Morales, Rafael Correa and Lula da Silva, some of these relations began to enter the stage of strategic alliances, especially during the years 2005-2013, as Iran became an observer member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Latin America, ALBA, in 2008, in one of the manifestations of these Alliances.

As a continuation of this rapprochement, Iran and Venezuela signed more than 270 agreements between 2005 and 2012, which included automobile manufacturing projects, energy programs, and others.

In 2019, following the coup of Venezuelan Parliament Speaker Juan Guaido against elected President Nicolas Maduro and the United States announcing his recognition, America froze the Venezuelan government's assets abroad, and exacerbated the suffering of Venezuelans, in conjunction with a humanitarian crisis that struck the world as a result of the spread of the Corona virus and the subsequent economic recession.

Iran sent 5 tankers of oil derivatives to Caracas to alleviate the unprecedented fuel crisis, and helped repair a number of Venezuelan oil refineries that were damaged by US sanctions, in a message confirming the strength of this alliance, and a challenge to the hegemony of the United States whose patrols in the Caribbean did not dare to intercept the fleet yet. Iranian warnings.

The first year of Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi's term did not pass, until he signed with his Venezuelan counterpart in Tehran a map of bilateral cooperation between the two countries in June 2022. Subsequently, Raisi handed over, in a ceremony via video technology, the second Iranian-made Venezuelan oil tanker, and committed Renovation of the largest oil refinery complex in Venezuela.

For his part, the Iranian president stressed, in a joint press conference with his Venezuelan counterpart, that "relations between Tehran and Caracas are not ordinary diplomatic relations, but rather strategic relations," noting that the two countries have "common opponents, common interests and common views in the areas of seeking independence, freedom and justice." 

The Iranian president participated in the ceremony of resuming the production line of two Iranian companies for cars and tractors in Venezuela, and said during the visit: "The volume of trade exchange can be increased to 10 billion dollars in a first step, and to 20 billion dollars in a second step," after the exchanges increased from 600 million dollars in 2008. 2021 to more than $3 billion.

During his meeting with Iranian and Venezuelan businessmen, he stressed that there is a great untapped potential to increase economic exchanges between Iran and Venezuela, and stated that the way to achieve the $20 billion agreements is serious activity and investment between the two countries.

The memorandums of cooperation included the sectors of communications and information technology, energy, insurance, maritime transport, higher education, agriculture, medicine and medicine, culture, and the mining sector, in addition to Iran’s decision to transfer micro and nanotechnology through government and private institutions, in order to build a model of Iranian-Venezuelan partnership and integration. It can circulate in a lot of countries that want an equal relationship.

These agreements provide opportunities for mutual investment in the field of agriculture, facing food security problems and exchanging commodities.

Commenting on the economic sanctions imposed by the United States on Venezuela, Roy Warran tells Al-Mayadeen Net: "Iran has a clear position against sanctions, and it rejects them completely, whether sanctions against Iran or any other country." He adds, "Our position is principled against sanctions. Therefore, Iran sent tankers carrying oil production requirements to Venezuela, in a practical step to refuse, whatever the price."

In the same context, since February 2023, two ships carrying Iranian products have arrived at Venezuelan ports, after the Iranian-Venezuelan shipping line was recently launched, as the Iranian-Venezuelan cooperation map stipulates that a ship sails from Iranian shores heading to Venezuela every 3 months.

"A large part of Venezuela's refining sector, which was neglected due to sanctions, has been put into operation with the help of Iranian experts," said Iranian Oil Minister Javad Auchi.

Iran will provide technical and engineering support, as well as equipment, to help modernize petrochemical complexes, loading docks and oil terminals in Venezuela.

After the Venezuelan president's visit to Tehran in 2022, the state oil company "Petroleos de Venezuela" and the state-owned National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company worked to renovate the "Paraguana" refining center, the largest refining complex in Venezuela, in a move to end Venezuela's dependence on American refinery technology. .

A unit of the National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company had earlier signed a contract worth 110 million euros with Petroleos de Venezuela last May to repair the El Palito oil refinery, which has a capacity of 146,000 barrels per day.

Since December 2022, Iranian commercial ships have been moving along the road leading to Venezuela to transport petrochemical products, primarily naphtha, which Venezuela needs in the production of Venezuelan oil.


Wednesday, June 14, 2023

Raisi visit Venezuela, Nicaragua, as part of his Latin American tour

    Wednesday, June 14, 2023   No comments

The Iranian President, Ebrahim Raisi, left the Venezuelan capital, Caracas, heading to Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, after the end of his two-day official visit, at the head of two political and economic delegations, as part of a tour to several countries in Latin America.

During his visit to Caracas, my president met with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, and high-level delegations of the two countries signed 25 agreements.

Raisi also met with the Speaker of Parliament and a group of chairmen of the Venezuelan National Assembly committees, visited the science and technology exhibition of Iranian achievements, sponsored the revival of the production line of two Iranian car companies, and met with Venezuelan youth groups and elites.

Earlier today, Tuesday, Iran and Venezuela signed a number of agreements in the presence of Iranian President Ibrahim Raisi and Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro in the capital, Caracas, including agreements related to oil, trade, health and technology.

In a joint press conference with his Venezuelan counterpart, the Iranian president stressed that "relations between Tehran and Caracas are not ordinary diplomatic relations, but rather strategic relations," noting that the two countries have "common opponents" and "common interests and common views in the areas of seeking independence and freedom." and justice.”

Referring to an increase in the volume of trade between the two countries from $600 million in 2021 to more than $3 billion, Raisi said, "The volume of trade exchange can be increased to $10 billion in a first step, and to $20 billion in a second step."

In turn, the Venezuelan president said, "Raisi's visit marks a new milestone in the relationship with Iran, which plays an excellent role as one of the most important emerging powers in the new world."

"We signed 25 agreements during this historic visit by President Raisi, and new agreements are still under negotiation," he said, explaining that "the goal of the sanctions is to make Venezuelan society collapse so that the United States can control its oil."

Monday, Raisi began his tour to Latin America, which includes Venezuela, Cuba and Nicaragua, with the aim of "continuing the policy of strengthening relations with friendly countries and promoting cooperation, economically, politically and scientifically."

This visit will last for 5 days, at the official invitation of Raisi's counterparts in the three countries.

A year ago, on such days, Tehran hosted the Venezuelan president, and the two sides signed a 20-year cooperation agreement.

Iran and Venezuela are two major oil producers and members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which makes them the focus of international discussions on the energy crisis resulting from the war in Ukraine.

Iran is strengthening its orientation towards Latin American countries, within the framework of its policy aimed at "diversifying foreign relations", which coincides with its efforts to strengthen and improve relations with the countries of the region, under the title of "neighborhood policy".

In the face of sanctions.. Raisi from Nicaragua calls for pluralism

Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi affirmed his country's readiness to expand and strengthen bilateral cooperation with Nicaragua, stressing that the relations between the two countries are strategic.

Raisi added during his meeting with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega: "We want to increase and deepen our relations in the political, economic and cultural fields, and in all other fields, especially in the field of science and technology."

He thanked the government for the warm reception and hospitality he received and the delegation accompanying him on his first visit, which began yesterday evening to the Central American country.

In turn, Ortega stressed that Nicaragua and Iran are twin revolutions that have deep roots in defending the identity and well-being of peoples.

When welcoming his Iranian counterpart, Ortega highlighted the perpetual struggle of both countries against empires that throughout history have tried to seize various lands to control the world.

The Head of State reviewed some of the battles waged by the first Nicaraguan anti-colonialists, while he told his Iranian counterpart the different stages of Nicaragua's struggle in defense of freedom and national sovereignty.

"Over the years, the United States has been extremely brutal with Nicaragua in its search for hegemony to build an inter-oceanic canal here, because this route was so coveted by North American businessmen," Ortega said.

Ortega received his Iranian counterpart at the head of a high-level political and economic delegation in Freedom Square in the capital, Managua, during an official reception ceremony.

Meanwhile, the Iranian president called for an end to unilateral sanctions that aim to subjugate people, calling on Latin American countries to bet on pluralism.

In an interview with Telesur, Raisi said, "We have to put an end to this unilateralism, create a multipolar world, and put an end to this oppression against human beings."

According to Raisi, "Sanctions are a declared war against states, and the tool was military. Now, sanctions are used to subjugate people."

He pointed out that "the Americans are looking for their interests in that region and all over the world, and they are looking for their hegemony. And what Trump said is the reality of the United States; that fact is that they are looking to usurp the reserves and plunder them."

Likewise, the Iranian president believed that the United States wanted to punish countries that did not submit to its policy.

He stressed that "Iran will not oppress anyone, and therefore will never accept being subjected to oppression," adding, "They do not want us to be independent and self-sufficient."

Raisi referred to "the various damages caused by the northern force in several countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan," stressing "the need to respect the internal decisions of each country."

It is noteworthy that the Iranian president had arrived yesterday in Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, at the end of his visit to Venezuela, as part of a tour in Latin America that also includes Cuba, which he started last Monday.

The Iranian President's visit to Nicaragua comes at the official invitation of his counterpart, President Ortega.

Prior to his Latin tour, Raisi said that the position of Iran and the countries he will visit is to "stand up to the hegemonic regime," stressing that relations with independent Latin countries are strategic.

Iran is strengthening its orientation towards Latin American countries within the framework of its policy aimed at "diversifying foreign relations", which coincides with its efforts to strengthen relations with countries in the region under the title of "neighborhood policy".


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